The study investigated the differential effects of performance feedback types on the improvement of students’ performance in school-based assessment. It used 145 senior secondary two (SS II) students from five secondary schools in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. The sample was drawn via a purposive sampling technique and assigned to four experimental groups and one control group. The groups were specific positive feedback, (SPF) specific negative feedback (SNF), non-specific negative feedback (NSNF), non-specific positive feedback (NSPF) and no feedback (NF, control). The study took a 5×2 between subjects factorial experimental research design by pretest post test technique. Two research questions and two null hypotheses guided the conduct of the study. Two equivalent instruments used for data collection were chemistry problem solving test form one and form two (i.e CPST1 and CPST2). They are essay itemed and their equivalent form reliability coefficient was 0.79. The inter-rater and Alpha coefficients for CPST1 were 0.68 and 0.73 respectively, while that of CPST2 were 0.71 and 0.76 respectively. Data collected were analysed using mean, standard deviation, paired t-test two-way analysis of covariance and pair wise comparison where necessary. The results obtained after data analysis showed a significant main effects for feedback types, gender and interaction between feedback types and gender. It was also found that SPF, SNF, NSNF and NSPF had significant effects, while NF had insignificant effects on the improvement of students’ performance in solving problems in chemistry. Based on the results, it was recommended among all that teachers should endeavour to use SPF in the appropriate ratio to SNF while assessing students performance.
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