Indonesia’s population of approximately 248.216.193 million spread over almost the entire Indonesian archipelago. There are many different religions and beliefs living in Indonesia, but only five religions recognized by the government, Islam, Christian, Catholic, Hindu, and Buddhist. Among the followers of these religions, Muslims are the most numerous, especially people who inhabit the island of Java. Islam in Indonesia organized by several Islamist organizations. The largest Islamic organizations are Muhammadiyah and Nahdlatul Ulama (NU). To find the development of two organizations community mentioned above, this study aims to (1) describe the cultural and social changes, the Muhammadiyah and NU, and (2) describe the social significance of these changes (cultural and social) for the social life of Muhammadiyah and NU and, (3) Describe the political orientation of Muhammadiyah and NU in Indonesian. With the data collection methods of observation, in-depth interviews, and questionnaires, this study concludes that in terms of socio-cultural of the two community, both Muhammadiyah and NU is located at the same position, ie there is no difference in the use of all forms of development and progress of existing as the impact factor of the development of religious thought, economic, social, cultural, and education is growing in Indonesia. The level of Islam, both Muslim organization has no principle difference. The most prominent difference is evident in the relationship between followers and leaders. The relation between followers and leaders at Muhammadiyah are to be equality, while at NU in general is more stratification (hierarchy). This is kind of relationship models for each follower will affect their behavior patterns in several ways, including the orientation or political aspirations. Regarding the political aspirations orientation (political party) there is a difference between Muhammadiyah and NU. The difference was due to the different nature of the base due to the influence of the history of the organization and community levels as well as models of the relationship between followers and leaders in their organizations respective. Regarding the choice of the party, Muhammadiyah members more rational while at NU generally more emotional and to the organization and kiai (religious scholar).
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