This is a descriptive study based on secondary data collected from various research papers and articles. This study theoretically evaluated the links between human resource management (HRM) practices and strategic human resource management (SHRM) and how such integration can enhance overall organizational performance and result in organizational attainment of sustainable competitive advantage. It is a fact that people, not products, markets, cash, buildings, or equipment, are the critical differentiators in the success of an organization. All the assets of an organization, other than organizational workforce are inert; they are passive resources that require human application to generate value. People and how they are managed are becoming more important because many other sources of enhanced profitability and competitive advantage are less powerful than they used to. The key to improved performance and achieving and sustaining a profitable organization is through the productivity of an organization’s workforce, therefore drawing on the Human Resource Management (HRM) and Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) literature, I built on the Resource-Based-View of the firm to theoretically articulate how organizations can be more productive and achieve sustainable competitive advantage through the effective management of people. Specifically, I attempted to further the theoretical development of Human Resource Management (HRM) and Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) by defining, summarizing and synthesizing the literature on the measurement and integration of HRM and SHRM. I also identified gaps in the literature on the relationship and integration of HRM and SHRM and developed research questions which can be tested empirically in future research and proposed several research methods which can be employed to answer the identified research questions.
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