In this paper, we begin by presenting the 17th case of acute lumbar paraspinal compartment syndrome in the scientific/medical literature. We then review all 17 cases for demographic and clinical characteristics, in particular in terms of how they influence ultimate outcomes. All but one case occurred in a male, and most patients were less than age 40 (71%). Symptoms typically were precipitated by some athletic activity (59%); other causes were surgery (n = 4), drug abuse (n = 2), and direct trauma (n =1). Peak CPK values ranged from 5000 to 350,000 U/L. Ten patients ultimately achieved or were presumed to achieve full recovery, six had persistent low back pain several months later, and one remained in renal failure. The only predictor of final outcome was the treatment given, with six of seven who underwent surgical fasciotomy and both patients administered hyperbaric oxygen experiencing full recovery, versus just two of seven treated conservatively (p = 0.03).
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