Tag Archives: Youth

Repositioning Adult Education to Address Youth Restiveness in Rivers State (Published)

This paper examined how adult education can be repositioned to address youth restiveness in Rivers State. The study was anchored on John Burton Human Needs Theory.  The key instrument for data collection was Focus Group Discussion (FGD) in three Local Government Areas in Rivers State.  The views of experts in the field of adult education through interviews were also used to complement the experience and personal observation of the writer. The findings of the study revealed that the causes of youth restiveness include illiteracy, poverty, unemployment and insincerity of the community leaders and the activities of the politicians. The author concluded that adult education if repositioned can address youth restiveness and other emerging issues in the society.  Based on the findings, the writer recommended among others that adult education objectives, scope and curriculum should be revisited to address the developmental needs of the youths and that adult education agencies as a matter of urgency should form a synergy

Keywords: Adult Education, Repositioning, Youth, and Restiveness

Youth Empowerment and National Security in Nigeria: Issues and Prospects (Published)

Against the background of scholarly debates and controversies on the subject, this micro study critically examines the much generalized and romanticized influence of the great Benin Kingdom on state formation among the west Niger Igbo. It thereby sets out to fill the gap in the historiography of state formation in the area, with the Kingdom of Ubulu-Ukwu as a case study. The study adopts the historical method of description and analysis, hinged on a chronological framework to posit the Nri-Awka area as the source of the initial stimulus for the peopling, kingship and title systems of Ubulu-Ukwu.  It argues that relations with Benin were stimulated by Benin’s needs for the vital services for which Ubulu-Ukwu was famous. These included the security of Benin coronations and the mystical protection of the Oba’s throne, state regalia and the magical paraphernalia necessary for his vitality and rejuvenation. Ubulu-Ukwu, being dynamic, through adaptation and emulation, effected adjustments to its monarchical system. Thus the Benin factor in political and cultural developments at Ubulu-Ukwu was not the result of conquest and imposition, despite a mid-18th century war between the two polities. The study concludes that the tendency to view west Niger Igbo history in the context of Benin domineering military influence and political tutelage which British imperialism encouraged is out of tune with historical reality.

Keywords: Criminality, Empowerment, Lip-services, National Security, Polices, Youth

Comparative Analysis of Opinions of Enterprise Managers and Business Students on Youth Entrepreneurship Development in Enterprises in the Context of Eritrea (Published)

The development of youth entrepreneurship has been forwarded as a very attractive alternative both to help the growing number of unemployed youth and to harness the potentials of the youth in an effort to bolster the economy of a country. This study has attempted to explore the level of importance of various factors for youth entrepreneurship development in enterprises in the context of Eritrea by seeking the opinions of private and public manufacturing enterprise managers and senior students in a business college. A total number of 150 managers and students were asked to rate 56 factors that are expected to influence or affect youth entrepreneurship development in enterprises. Respondents were asked to rate each factor, presented in the form of 5-points likert-scale. The ratings of the factors of importance for youth entrepreneurship development in enterprises by the three groups of respondents have a moderate degree of correspondence (as measured by the Spearman’s rho). Among the factors considered for youth entrepreneurship development in enterprises, prioritized factors by private enterprise managers are related with provision of more supportive environment for youth. Public enterprise managers have prioritized factors that target for the development of enterprise such as technology transfer and education while students have prioritized factors related with ambition, individual initiative and hard work In general, private enterprise managers were found to rate the factors higher compared to either public enterprise managers or the student group. The study has shown that the three groups of respondents have somewhat different opinions on how youth entrepreneurship in enterprises can be developed. This suggests the need to take into account the viewpoints of various relevant stakeholders when such programs of youth entrepreneurship development are envisioned.    

Keywords: Business Students, Entrepreneurship, Eritrea, Managers, Youth

Analyzing the Prevalence of Illicit Drug Use in Jordan’s Rural Towns: The Governorates of Jerash and Ajloun as Case Studies (Published)

Jordan is not typically at the center of global concern regarding illicit drug prevalence. However, in recent years – and presumably since the onset of the Syria Civil War – the prevalence of illicit drugs in Jordan has become an important issue. While the question regarding whether this presence is due to Jordan historically being used by traffickers as a trafficking hub – or whether illicit drugs have indeed gained a foothold amongst Jordanian youth – remains, analysis of this issue is necessary in order to better understand this contemporary issue. Interestingly, rural areas such as towns within the governorates of Jerash and Ajloun (in northern Jordan) are at least anecdotally said to have a high prevalence of drug use within them. While no official government data is available to illustrate the prevalence of illicit drugs per governorate, and social stigma associated with addiction prevents the opportunity for extensive interviews to take place with those struggling with addiction, a plethora of media reports are available that provide insight into this pressing issue, in addition to limited anonymous interview access with individuals struggling with addiction. Accordingly, this research article will use interviews and content analysis as methodologies to both analyze available media excerpts to better determine whether illicit drug use is indeed becoming more prevalent amongst Jordanian youth or whether the rise in the presence of illicit drugs in Jordan is due to increased trafficking as a result of border security issues related to the Syrian Civil War.

Keywords: Ajloun, Drugs, Epidemic, Jerash, Jordan, Youth

Digital Food Marketing: What We Know, What We Should Know (Published)

Today’s adolescents are growing up at the center of an exploding digital media culture and are primary targets for digital food marketing. A combination of factors has made them particularly valuable to interactive marketers, including their role as ‘‘early adopters’’ of new media practices and their steadily rising spending power. A trend has been observed towards increasing investment in food marketing on new media such as the Internet, social media and video games. The aim is to engage youth in emotional, entertaining experiences and to encourage them to share these experiences with their environments.  There is unequivocal evidence that marketing of unhealthy food influences youth health. Therefore, there is a need: 1) to address the growing health threat facing youth in the digital marketplace, 2) to design new smart technologies to support credible nutrition communication and e-health.  A formative exploratory study in Lebanon, based on social marketing approach, showed that food marketing and nutrition communication influence the knowledge, food preferences and dietary patterns of youth. Comprehensive nutrition communication on multiple media increases the power of persuasive messages that encourage healthy lifestyles. Research on digital food marketing impact on health remains underdeveloped and should be of concern to policy makers.

Keywords: E-Health, Food Marketing, Media, Nutrition Communication, Youth

The Buying Pattern of Energy Drink and its Use among the Young Generation of Saudi Arabia (Published)

Energy drink intake has to turn into a favorite exercise around the world, in particular among the younger generation. In Saudi Arabia, there are significant limitations in energy drinks – in abstract, tastes, advertising, the attention of sponsorship, are not permitted,” however, it is not limited to the use of social media. The core purpose of this study is to investigate the consumption patterns of energy drinks among young people in Saudi Arabia even after partial restrictions on the promotion of energy drinks. This method of the research was used an exploratory approach in nature with the data collection through survey method (Maxim, 1999) were gathered from the respondents. A self-administered structured questionnaire was developed using survey monkey online services.  After getting the responses, the data were edited, tabulated and analyzed using descriptive statistics (Frequency distribution) through the excel sheet and the result was explained accordingly. The result reveals that there is a trend of widespread use of energy drinks among young people, especially students in the age group 23-27 (72.10%). It also indicates that there is a high level of social acceptance of energy drink consumption in the region. The respondents showed a tendency towards buying decisions of it, but between the choice of brands, a certain degree of loyalty was shown. There is a call of some awareness program to increase the knowledge among the youth about the consumption of energy drinks and their effects on health.

Keywords: : Energy Drinks, Buying Pattern, Consumer Behavior, Power Drink, Saudi Arabia, Youth

Socio-Cultural and Environmental Determinants of Youth Gambling: Evidence from Ghana (Published)

The gambling behaviour of the youth is among the least explored research areas in Ghana. Most previous study focused on youth and employment, youth and development, youth and politics, youth empowerment, youth and education, youth and HIV/AIDS and more recently youth and agriculture. The big question is how much do we know about youth and problem gambling as Ghanaians? This study deployed social learning theory and social conflict theory by Albert Bandura and Karl Max respectively as the underpinning philosophies to assess youth gambling attitude in Ghana in order to fill this knowledge gap. A cross sectional descriptive survey approach was adopted for this study. Stratified sampling technique was used to select 200 youth from all the nine sub metro within Kumasi metropolis. Structured questionnaire was the main instrument used in gathering primary data. Data were analyzed with Predictive Analytic Software (PASW) for windows. The results were presented using regression, correlation, ANOVA and percentages. The study revealed that all the factors outlined to predict youth gambling behaviour were significant (R2 = 0.822, ANOVA < 0.05). Furtherance, 1% change in familial factors will bring 70.7% (0.8412) in youth attitude towards gambling. Moreover, 1% change in social factors will bring 22.9% (0.4792) change in youth attitude towards gambling. Also, a unit change in cultural and demographic factors will bring 4.7% (0.2192) change in youth attitude towards gambling. Finally, a unite change in environmental factor will bring 2% (0.1422) change in youth attitude towards gambling. It is recommended that future studies should consider factors such as cognitive and economic factors to determine youth gambling behaviour.

Keywords: Cultural and Environmental factors, Gambling, Ghana, Social, Youth, attitude

Influence of Youth Access to Farm Products Markets on Their Participation in Agriculture in Kajiado North Sub-County (Published)

Agriculture in Kenya has great untapped potential for providing employment opportunities for youth that would enable them exploit their creativity, economic innovation and access to agricultural product markets in order to spur faster national economic growth. Reducing cereal importation in Kenya through local investment and expanding of markets for agricultural products can effectively create youth employment. A number of youth took part in agriculture in Kajiado North Sub- County with maize being  the most preferred crop while poultry keeping the most preferred livestock activity by youth  The influence of youth access to markets for agricultural products on their participation in agriculture in Kajiado North Sub-County was poorly understood and hence the need for this study, which used a cross-sectional design to collect data from 397 randomly, selected youth and 22 youth and agricultural officers. Content validity of the youth and agricultural officers’ questionnaires was ascertained by extension experts while reliability was determined through a pilot test involving 30 respondents. The reliability coefficient were 0.86α and 0.80α respectively, which were above the 0.70 threshold for acceptable reliability. The results showed a statistically significant positive relationship (r=.330, p=.01) between youth access to markets and their participation in agriculture. It also showed that youth access to markets influenced their participation in agriculture with 57.4% of the respondents indicating that poor infrastructures and limited knowledge on market prices reduced their access to markets for agricultural commodities. Youth with easy access to markets for their products had higher participation rates in agricultural activities than those with minimal access to markets. The government and other actors should support formation of organizations that can give youth the necessary bargaining power to interact on equal terms with other market actors in order to reduce transaction costs through economies of scale when buying inputs and selling produce.

Keywords: Agriculture, Employment, Farm Products, Gender, Market, Youth

Factors Affecting the Inculcation of Moral Behaviour in Youths within Families in Ohaozara Local Government Area Ebonyi State (Published)

The study focused on the factors affecting the inculcation of moral behaviour in youths within families in Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. The objectives of the study focused on ascertaining how socio-economic factors, modern technology, environment and peer group influence affect the inculcation of moral behaviours in youths in Ohaozara Local Government Area. Four research questions guided the study. Two hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance using chi-square. The area of the study was Ohaozara local government area of Ebonyi state. The population of the study was made up of nine thousand, nine hundred and eight parents. The sample size of the study was two hundred and fifty parents drawn randomly from the three communities in Ohaozara Local Government Area. Questionnaire was used for data collection. The mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions.  Findings of the study revealed that moral decadence affects students’ academic performance. It also revealed that good guidance and counseling are good strategies for restoring morality among youths within families. The following recommendations were made; 1. Parents should check the environment in which they raise their children as environment affects the moral behaviour of youths. 2. There should be adequate and proper home training for children in the society. 3. The youths’ access to modern technology should be monitored by parents.

Keywords: Behaviour, Families, Moral, Teaching, Youth

The Influence of Counselling, Training and Consultancy on Venture Start-Ups by Women and Youth in Baringo County, Kenya (Published)

Enterprise development interventions are critical to the development of an entrepreneurship society. The support interventions are critical to new venture starts-ups among the vulnerable members of society. This paper examines the influence of counselling, training and consultancy enterprise development interventions facilitate new venture start-ups among women and youth. The paper is based on a study of new venture start-ups among women and youth in Baringo County. The study adopted a survey design. The target population of the study was 1049 respondents from which a sample of 281 was randomly selected. Questionnaire and data sheet were used as the data collection instruments. The collected data was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings of the study showed that most of the entrepreneurs in Baringo County are influenced by group members to engage in new business ventures. Other motivators include personal imitative, family members and access to entrepreneurship training. Unfortunately, most of the youth and women entrepreneurs have never received any business management training in basic accounting, book keeping and entrepreneurship skills. This can be attributed to the fact that, as attested to by most of the respondents, most of the training available is not for free or subsidized. Therefore, most of these budding entrepreneurs may not afford to take part in training. Nevertheless, the entrepreneurs admitted that there they needed training to enhance their capacity to successfully run their enterprises. The regression model indicated that there is a significant relationship between consultancy, training and counselling and new venture start-ups (p=0.022). The study concluded that support is generally available and relatively easy for farmer-owned commodity processing businesses to obtain. The study recommended that the county government of Baringo should support entrepreneurs by creating a favourable business environment for their operations.

Keywords: Baringo County, Consultancy, Counselling, Training, Venture Start-ups, Women, Youth

The Effects of Globalization on Nigerian Youths and the Economy (Published)

The style of information dissemination throughout the world this time has made the word globalization a common process of bringing the whole world together. As it stands now the information of any event at any part of the world gets to Nigeria or any other part of the world in a very short time. Therefore globalization has come to improve the process of communication and advancement in technology. The fast movements of goods and services, economic liberalism, scientific inventions and discoveries have reduced the large world to a global village. Nigeria as a developing country cannot shy away from globalization, since the country has been exposed to both the negative and positive effects of globalization. The objective of this article is to identify the effects of globalization on the Nigerian youths and the economy. It recognized the good opportunities of globalization, and suggests ways of eliminating the negative effects of globalization. The author reviewed existing literatures on the concepts of globalization and development

Keywords: Economy, Globalization, Nigeria, Productivity, Technology, Youth

Influence of Youth Access to Farm Products Markets on Their Participation in Agriculture in Kajiado North Sub-County (Published)

Agriculture in Kenya has great untapped potential for providing employment opportunities for youth that would enable them exploit their creativity, economic innovation and access to agricultural product markets in order to spur faster national economic growth. Reducing cereal importation in Kenya through local investment and expanding of markets for agricultural products can effectively create youth employment. A number of youth took part in agriculture in Kajiado North Sub- County with maize being the most preferred crop while poultry keeping the most preferred livestock activity by youth The influence of youth access to markets for agricultural products on their participation in agriculture in Kajiado North Sub-County was poorly understood and hence the need for this study, which used a cross-sectional design to collect data from 397 randomly, selected youth and 22 youth and agricultural officers. Content validity of the youth and agricultural officers’ questionnaires was ascertained by extension experts while reliability was determined through a pilot test involving 30 respondents. The reliability coefficient were 0.86α and 0.80α respectively, which were above the 0.70 threshold for acceptable reliability. The results showed a statistically significant positive relationship (r=.330, p=.01) between youth access to markets and their participation in agriculture. It also showed that youth access to markets influenced their participation in agriculture with 57.4% of the respondents indicating that poor infrastructures and limited knowledge on market prices reduced their access to markets for agricultural commodities. Youth with easy access to markets for their products had higher participation rates in agricultural activities than those with minimal access to markets. The government and other actors should support formation of organizations that can give youth the necessary bargaining power to interact on equal terms with other market actors in order to reduce transaction costs through economies of scale when buying inputs and selling produce.

Keywords: Agriculture, Employment, Gender, Market, Youth

Influence of Access to Land and Finances on Kenyan Youth Participation in Agriculture: A Review (Published)

The Kenya Government prioritized the development of the agricultural sector to achieving the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of sustainable food production. Kenya’s strategic plan, Vision 2030 positions agriculture as a key driver for delivering a 10% annual economic growth and is expected to have an average growth rate of 7% by 2015. Agriculture contributes over 80% of all employment opportunities in the country, but Kenyan youths are not taking advantage of these opportunities since 64% of them are unemployed. To advance the 7% average growth rate, it is pertinent that the Kenyan youth be fully involved in agricultural development. However, agriculture is perceived unattractive to the youth and its potential has not been fully realized. The purpose of this review is to find out the influence of land and finances on youth participation in agriculture and to identify the interventions that can make agriculture attractive to the youth in Kenya. This information will be useful to the government, the farming community, agriculturalists, policy makers and non-governmental organisations in laying strategies that will make agriculture attractive to the youth. This will subsequently enhance youth participation in agriculture resulting in increased food production, employment creation and income generation for the youth. Engaging the youth in agricultural activities will contribute in reducing crime and other social problems attributed to the youth.

Keywords: Agriculture, Economy, Food Security, Kenya, Youth

YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT AND POVERTY IN NIGERIA (Published)

Unemployment and poverty are both reflective and precipitants of plethora of contemporary societal challenges such as leadership, security, governance, etc. that are inimical to human social – existence (for engendering adequate human capacity building and material utilisation) globally. For instance, the National Bureau of Statistics in Nigeria revealed the alarming rate of youth unemployment which is as much as 50%. Considering the fact that, the current population growth rate is put at 2.8 per annum in Nigeria which accompanies an already national population of over 167 million people. Therefore, the extent to which these challenges possess to the nation is remarkably worrisome in recent times, is the escalating and worrisome rate of youth unemployment which has assumed an alarming crescendo. It is against this backdrop, the paper sees to its justification the need to see to its imperativeness with a view of given cogent attention for their needs. Hence, this paper examines “the intimate connection between unemployment and poverty, and how these two phenomena affect the youth in Nigeria”. In order to fulfill the objectives of this paper, relevant literature were consulted and established database explored for holistic and comparative study, to illustrate the mitigation and enabling factors for the realization of the objectives of youth employment and poverty alleviation if not total eradication in the society – Nigeria. With the aid of content analyses of the materials explored: this paper contend that fundamentally, there is a close nexus between poverty and unemployment with direct bearings on the critical segment of the society, particularly the youth. Also, inspite of the myriad policies and programmes initiated by successive Nigerian government such as National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS), Subsidy Re-Investment and Empowerment Programme (SURE-P), National Directorate of Employment (NDE), National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) Schemes in Nigeria, as lofty and laudable as they seem, their inability to affect the real target (youth), reflects the lacuna between policy formulation and implementation. The thrust of this paper therefore is its strong proposition to government at all levels to demonstrate a commitment towards responsive governance, with focus on jobs creation and eradication of poverty. In addition, appropriate authorities should endeavor to sensitize the citizens on the need to embrace birth control measures for the purpose of engendering sustainable development.

Keywords: Population and Development, Poverty, Unemployment, Youth

READING YOUTH-: VIOLENCE AND IDEOLOGICAL PROPAGANDA IN SELECTED SOUTHERN NIGERIAN PLAYS (Published)

The media’s capacity to manipulate information and create stereotypes can negatively affect young audiences who emulate its aggressive behavioral models. The rate of violence and aggression among Niger Delta youths, who form the core of the militant resistance in the area, can be attributed to the influence of socio-cultural factors of corruption, cultural ideologies and narrative myths created by the media. This essay examines the manner certain plays written by Southern Nigerian playwrights serve as media extensions by acting as if they are creative depictions of the marginalized Delta youth’s social reality while in actuality these works mediate personal objectives that further engender youth violence. The work analyzes the generative ability of the narrative as an action creating new identities and stereotypes. Youth violence, while being anti-social in nature, appears justified in the reference plays which have psychotic young heroes that glamorize violent agitation as an existentialist strategy. The essay surmises that propagandist literature can become operational when the author deliberately gives prominence to certain details while relegating other necessary facts that shape perception and identity

Keywords: Militancy, Niger-Delta, Priming, Propaganda, Violence, Youth

YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT AND HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN NIGERIA/GAMBIA: THE ROLE OF HUMAN SECURITY PROVISIONING (Published)

This paper investigated the association between unemployment and human security provisioning using ordinary least square estimator of regression analysis. Unemployment was measured using unemployment rate while human security provisioning was measured by; food security, purchasing power parity and poverty rate. This study adopted a comparative survey research design. Both primary and Secondary data were used. The outcomes of the study show that Food security had an inverse relationship with youth unemployment in the Gambia while Purchasing power parity had a significant effect on unemployment rate in Nigeria. In both countries, there is a high positive association between youth unemployment and human security provisioning. Moreover, the study found empirically that the key factor responsible for youth vulnerability is lack of subsistence occasioned by unemployment. Therefore, it has become more pertinent that the government of Nigeria and the Gambia developed a pragmatic approach in reducing youth unemployment as a strategy for reducing the incidence of human trafficking

Keywords: Human Security, Human Trafficking, Unemployment, Youth

INFLUENCE OF ACCESS TO LAND AND FINANCES ON KENYAN YOUTH PARTICIPATION IN AGRICULTURE: A REVIEW (Published)

The Kenya Government prioritized the development of the agricultural sector to achieving the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of sustainable food production. Kenya’s strategic plan, Vision 2030 positions agriculture as a key driver for delivering a 10% annual economic growth and is expected to have an average growth rate of 7% by 2015. Agriculture contributes over 80% of all employment opportunities in the country, but Kenyan youths are not taking advantage of these opportunities since 64% of them are unemployed. To advance the 7% average growth rate, it is pertinent that the Kenyan youth be fully involved in agricultural development. However, agriculture is perceived unattractive to the youth and its potential has not been fully realized. The purpose of this review is to find out the influence of land and finances on youth participation in agriculture and to identify the interventions that can make agriculture attractive to the youth in Kenya. This information will be useful to the government, the farming community, agriculturalists, policy makers and non-governmental organisations in laying strategies that will make agriculture attractive to the youth. This will subsequently enhance youth participation in agriculture resulting in increased food production, employment creation and income generation for the youth. Engaging the youth in agricultural activities will contribute in reducing crime and other social problems attributed to the youth.

Keywords: Agriculture, Economy, Food Security, Kenya, Youth

FINANCIAL EMPOWERMENT THROUGH ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN EGG-LAYING DOMESTIC FOWL PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA (Published)

The need to financially develop and empower women and youths (especially the numerous unemployed) as prerequisite and necessary preparation for their adequate and successful role as ‘home-builders’ and ‘leaders of tomorrow’ was considered. Entrepreneurship was alluded to as a very reliable avenue to ensure the success and sustainability of this necessary development and empowerment need. Egg-laying domestic-fowl production was identified as having the much prospect for successful venture into entrepreneurship. The role and use of the domestic fowl production as a tool to enhance the entrepreneurial development and financial-empowerment was highlighted and appraised. The egg-laying domestic-fowl is a necessary and profitable venture and instrument for successful entrepreneurship and sustainable financial-development,empowerment and poverty-alleviation among unemployed/underemployed men, women and youths as well as a means of averting the possible involvements of these vulnerable groups in vices and criminality. The cost of carrying out the projects, duration, the financial returns, and possible sources of funds/financial assistance were highlighted

Keywords: Domestic fowl, Entrepreneurship, Financial empowerment, Women, Youth