Tag Archives: writing

Examining Second Language Written Output: A Case Study of a Saudi University Masters EFL Students (Published)

The researcher used a qualitatively oriented methodology to examine the written performance of sixteen MA students majoring in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in the MA Program at one of the recently established universities in Saudi Arabia. Students’ final exams were thoroughly analyzed for the syntactic structures used in the students’ writing. The sampling process was selective and purposeful in that it was comprised of four outstanding and four poor performances drawn from a total of sixteen students’ exam results. Deviated structures, together with the correct ones, were analyzed and described with the aim of mapping common issues in writing performance at a targeted university. Two major sources of unacceptable writing performance included a lack of knowledge of the target language, together with the influence of the students’ mother tongue. Additionally, diagnosing a remedy for the deviated forms was proposed. More reinforcement and support for those who were successful was also recommended.

Citation:Mohammad Ali AlGhamdi( 2021) Examining Second Language Written Output: A Case Study of a Saudi University Masters EFL Students, International Journal of English Language and Linguistics Research, Vol.9, No 8, pp.30-40

Keywords: EFL, Higher Education, Performance, writing

Teaching English Writing Remotely During Covid-19 in College of Basic Education Kuwait (Published)

This paper deals with teaching writing as a process at the college of Basic Education Kuwait. It talks about the changes that had to be implemented in the times of COVID-19 and any challenges needed to be overcome.

Keywords: Adult Learners, Teaching English, writing, writing as a process education

Vol 9, Issue 5, 2021 ()

Keywords: Adult Learners, Teaching English, writing, writing as a process education

Examining L2 Written Output: A Case Study MA; EFL Students in a Saudi Novice University (Published)

This article is based on a qualitative oriented methodology to examine the written performance of six MA students majoring in English as Foreign Language (EFL) in the MA Program at one of the recently established universities in Saudi Arabia.  Students’ final exam sheets were thoroughly looked at for the description of the syntactic structures in the students’ writing performance.  The sampling process was selective and purposeful in the sense that it comprises three outstanding and the three poor performances out of a total of fourteen students’ exam sheets.  Deviated structures together with the correct ones were analyzed and described with the aim of mapping common issues in writing performance in targeted university and assumingly which might help the targeted university and other similar contexts inside Saudi Arabia and other neighboring countries, two major sources of the unacceptable performance is lack of knowledge of the target language together with mother tongue influence. Additionally; diagnosing a remedy for the deviated forms was proposed. More reinforcement and support for those who were successful were too recommended.

Keywords: EFL, Higher Education, Performance, writing

Use of Effective Brainstorming Technique on Standard Seven Learners’ Achievement in English Composition Writing In Public Primary Schools In Kisumu County, Kenya (Published)

Adaptation of brain storming technique to teach standard seven learners in English composition writing offers the learners an opportunity to work well together with behaviour, collaboration and communication well natured .The objective was to determine the influence of whole class technique on learners’ achievement in composition writing skills in public primary schools in Kisumu County. The piagets theory 1967 was used to determine brain storming, technique on standard seven learners achievement in English composition writing skills. Non-equivalent control group with pre and post –test groups research design was adopted. The sample size of 292 was drawn from 6 teachers of English, 6 head teachers and standard seven pupils in public schools. Data was collected via questionnaire, observation schedules and check lists. Analysis was done using descriptive statistics.The findings indicated that brain writing strategy is moderately used (m= 3.40 SD of 1.269), pie storm teaching technique is highly used (m= 3.733 and SD of 1.796), and brain wave and brain writing strategy relatively contribute to learners’ composition writing skills The computed z values for brainstorming technique elements revealed a z-statistic value higher than the z- Critical value and P-value less than 0.05. Thus, the study rejected the entire five Null hypotheses as there was a statistically significant relationship between: individual group technique, whole class technique, small group technique, round robin technique and relay technique; and learners’ achievement in composition writing skills in public primary schools in Kisumu County. For policy makers and implementers, ministry of Education and Kenya National Examination Council, should address the use of inquiring-based learning in order to provoke critical-thinking in learners as the new (CBC) gets rooted to curb the negative attitude of embracing change of teaching for life and not for exams .For theory similar studies should be carried out using inferential statistics, especially multiple regression analysis to assess how the individual strategies of brainstorming teaching technique contribute to overall learners’ learning achievements. Other researches can use the Humanist child development theory to cater for the concerns of a paradigm shift to the thinking about holistic development of the learners.  .

Keywords: Learners’ achievements, composition writing, individual group strategy, relay group strategy., round robin group strategy, small group strategy, whole group strategy, writing

Examining reading and writing approaches used in the teaching of reading and writing abilities in South Africa (Published)

The education-specific policy on language in South Africa lays emphasis on teaching, use and promotion of all official languages, through what is described as additive multilingualism. Mother tongue is universally acknowledged as the most effective way to function both cognitively and socially. The focus of the paper is on the methods used to teach reading and writing in Grade One.  The study was conducted at four different Primary Schools where Sepedi is the Language of Teaching and Learning (LOLT). Observations, interviews and document analysis were used for data collection. The findings was that teachers resort to two to three methods i.e. whole class reading, paired reading and reading aloud of which does not yield good results. There are also challenges which contribute to the abovementioned issue: lack of resources, lack of parental involvement and overcrowded classes to name a few.  The aim of this study was to establish how reading and writing in Sepedi as the home language was taught in Grade One in Mpumalanga Province primary schools in  rural areas. A qualitative approach utilising an interpretive design was used. The findings indicated that teachers resorted to few and same strategies for teaching reading. In addition, findings support the notion that there are challenges in teaching reading in Grade One.


Keywords: Reading, Sepedi as home language, Teaching, language of learning, writing

The Development of Contextual Approach-Based Materials for Poetry Writing On Grade X Student In Sma Budi Murni 2 Medan (Published)

This research is based on the learning problems of class X students of SMA Budi Murni 2 that are still teacher-centered. This causes students not being able to study independently because of the lack of poetry text references used in poetry writing class. In addition, the student’s ability to write poetry texts is known to be low because the teaching materials used by teachers and students are still based on textbooks. The book is the only source of information for poetry text writing study. In learning to write poetry texts, teacher sometimes still use learning methods that tend to be monotonous, such as the use of discussion methods. This  is known from the results of observations made by the researchers  themselves. All poetry texts writing learning comes from textbooks. Based on the above problems, the researcher  conducted a research development  aimed at (1) to analyze  the  development  process of the contextual approach-based poetry text writing materials on grade X student  in SMA Budi Murni 2 Medan, (2) to analyze the feasibility of the contextual approach-based poetry text writing materials on grade X student  in SMA Budi Murni 2 Medan, (3) to analyze the effectiveness of the contextual approach-based poetry text writing materials on grade X student  in SMA Budi Murni 2 Medan. The method adopted is the Research and development (R&D) proposed by Sugiyono, based on Borg and Gall. The trial subjects consisted of 3 students in individual test, 9 students in small group test, and 35 students in limited field test. The data collection technique used observation, interviews, questionnaire, and poetry text writing test. The research result shows that (1) material expert’s validation includes content feasibility with an average of 83,52% in “very good” criteria, presentation eligibility with an average of 87,5% in “very good” criteria, and language aspect with an average of  75% in “good” criteria, (2) graphyc design expert’s validation with an average of 83,46% in “very good” criteria, (3) teachers’ responses with an average of 88,23% in “very good” criteria, (4) individual test with an average of 77,77% in “very good” criteria, (5) small group test with an average of 80,10% in “very good” criteria, (6) limited field test with an average of 84,82% in “very good” criteria. The learning outcomes of student’s poetry writing before using the module was 74.28,  while after using the module increased up to 85.57. The resulted difference between before and after the module usage is as much as 11.29. The implication of this study is that, the developed teaching materials may provide practical contributions in the implementation of the learning process for teacher. This is because the additional teaching materials provide convenience in the process of teaching.

Keywords: Approach, Based, Contextual, Development, Material, Poetry, Teaching, Text, writing

News Presentation in Class as an Activity to Teach Integrated Skills in EFL in Africa (Published)

To make their learners achieve good competency in second or foreign language, teachers need to be careful in the choice of techniques, approaches and activities they use. Unfortunately, many teachers and course books separate the four macro skills in their teaching approach. The language which should be seen as a whole is taught in a segregated way, i. e. with whole lessons / sessions on listening, speaking, reading or writing skills. Language, whose prime objective is communication, is thus compartmentalised and leads to poor users. A good reader, listener or writer of a language is not necessarily a competent user of it in real communication situations. This paper proposes the presentation of news in class as an activity to integrate the four macro skills in teaching English as a Foreign Language. It is an exercise which involves the active participation of the whole class, considerably reduces the teacher talking time while increasing that of the learners.

Keywords: Integrated Skills, Listening, News, Participation, Reading, Speaking, writing

The Challenges Facing the Students of the Higher Basic Stage in Jordanian Public Schools in Writing English (Published)

The study aims to identify the challenges facing the tenth grade students in Jordanian public schools in writing the English language. To achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher followed the analytical descriptive approach in terms of applying the study tool and data collection and analysis, While the sample of the study consisted of (50) teachers of English language. The study found that there are a number of challenges facing students in writing the English language was the most prominent Letters followed by a vowel, the researcher recommended The need for many of the studies on different regions of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan to find out the real reasons for poor students in learning English writing.

Keywords: Challenges, English Language, writing

Enhancing Skills of Teaching and Learning EFL at Tertiary Level Using Culture-Based Approach and Cognitive Perspective (Published)

Today, Englishes is concerned with the expansion of English around the world and with its development into distinctive first, second and foreign language varieties, these having been subject to different classifications and models of analysis. In most universities in Vietnam English is the compulsory subject and the requirement set for English level among graduate students is getting more demanding. The reason is policy makers and curriculum designers are oriented by international exams to modify their English programs. Hence, students are required to produce free writing as well as achieve an adequate reading ability and some other skills. Nonetheless, many of them cannot cope with the program as they encounter difficulties both objective and subjective. This paper examines possible subjective and objective hindrances among Vietnamese students as well as Asian students, the goals they should hit in today era and solutions to tackle with the problem. Here it proposes the use of culture-based approach and cognitive perspective to pinpoint Asian thinking and its influence on English performance and to find an answer to improving students’ skills with detailed analysis on activities to be implemented in English classes. More importantly, the paper also gives implications for curriculum designers in order to make teachers, learners and topic learning into consideration as it is a significant factor in determining quantity, quality, and nature of classroom interaction. The aim of this paper is to raise stakeholders’ awareness of TESOL professionals about the cultural issues related to language education and to provoke further research, thought, and discussion about ways in which theories and practices can be applied in ESL/EFL teaching situations.

Keywords: Asian Students, Cognitive Perspective, Culture-Based Approach, Reading skills, writing

Observing Contextual Teaching and Learning on Students’ Achievement in Writing Recount Text (Case Study: Smp Swasta Bina Bangsa, Batubara Regency) (Published)

Contextual learning theory  occurs only when students (learners) process new information or knowledge in such a way that it makes sense to them in their own frames of reference (their own inner worlds of memory, experience, and response). This approach to learning and teaching assumes that the mind naturally seeks meaning in context-that is, in relation to the person’s current environment-and that it does so by searching for relationships that make sense and appear useful.   This study is intended to discover the effect of contextual teaching and learning on students’ achievement in writing recount text. It is conducted at eight (VIII) grade students of SMP Swasta Bina Bangsa,  Batubara Regency. Based on the calculation, it shows that the reliability of the test is 0.99. Then, after analyzing the data, it was found that the value is 5.65 with the degree of freedom (df) = 38 at the level of significance p(0.05) = 2.024. It means that it is higher than tt (5.65 > 2.024). The result  shows that contextual teaching and learning has a significant effect on students’ achievement in writing recount text in this school.

Keywords: Contextual Teaching and Learning, Recount Text, Students’ Achievement, writing

Teaching the Literary Skills of Speaking and Writing In Secondary Schools: A Proactive Approach (Published)

This paper discusses the teaching of two aspects of the English language at the Secondary School level. It is a position paper that highlights the Curriculum content of Continuous writing and Oral English; It also attempts a practicable and effective approach to both aspects of English as the author provides perspectives into the teaching of both.

Keywords: Continuous writing, English as a second language, Oral English, Strategies., writing

An Investigation into Undergraduates’ Errors in the Use of the Indefinite Article at Omar Al-Mukhtar University (Published)

The purpose of this study was to examine  the use of English articles as well the errors made by the students at Omar Al-Mukhtar University. The research objectives consists of : To identify the types and sources of errors made by Libyan EFL Undergraduates at Omar Al-Mukhtar University in the use of the indefinite article during their written composition, To determine the major types of errors in which larger numbers of errors have been committed by the students in their written composition.  Based on previous studies,  A qualitative method of data collection represented by an essay-writing composition is implemented in this study. Moreover, they were asked to write essay writing composition of the following topics “Discuss The Problems You Face In Learning English Language?” The results provide of this study, reporting the information collected from Compositions and  analyzed by  using descriptive statistical percentages in terms of errors numbers and percentages of errors occurrences under their major types, which enabled the researchers to put these in an order of their occurrences. In other words, data were organized using categories given to each of these errors. Regarding the length of compositions, a total of (2194) English words were written by the students across their university levels. Freshmen wrote a total of (1193) words which represents (54.37%) whereas sophomores wrote (1001) words which represents (40.62%). These research also suggest that there is a significant and negative impact of  the use of English Articles. Since majority of students agreed that the English Articles are important, and  we should look at the importance of English language as well as how students improve their proficiency in English articles  towards mastering the use of English language.

Keywords: Articles, English Language, Grammar, Language Acquisition, Morpheme, communication, writing

The Improvement of Students’ Writing Skill Achievement through Error Analysis Method (Published)

This research attempts at knowing the effectiveness of Error Analysis Method toward the students’ achievement in English writing skill and their perceptions to Error Analysis Method (hereafter EAM) for teaching and learning writing. The method used in this research is Classroom Action Research (CAR). The subjects of this research are 31 students of the third semester of English Department of State University of Medan of 2012/2013 academic year. The instrument for collecting data is essay writing test. The data are analysed by descriptive analysis. The results of the research shows that 1) the students’ achievement in English writing skill is (76.74) in average or it increases (17.32) basis points from the pre-test (59.42) in average and 2) in general, the students have positive and good perceptions toward Error Analysis Method for teaching and learning writing skill of English. This implies that the implementation of EAM is significantly effective to improve students’ writing skill.

Keywords: Error, Error Analysis Method, writing

Vol 4, Issue 3, March 2016 ()

Keywords: Error, Error Analysis Method, writing


The purpose of this study was to explore perception of teachers on their attitude toward the teaching of essay writing in Onueke Education zone of Ebonyi State. Three research questions and a null hypothesis guided the work. Questionnaire was used as the instrument. A trial test was carried out and tested for reliability and a value of 0.75 was obtained from the test. The instrument was further subjected to face validation. Language teachers – English, Igbo and French totaling 374 drawn from 59 secondary schools served as the population and out of this number, 120 language teachers – 60 males and 60 females were selected using simple random sampling technique. All the responses on the three research questions indicated that although essay writing is very important in the intellectual development of students, yet most teachers’ exhibit non-challant attitude in teaching essay writing. These poor attitudes were discovered to be as a result of the complex nature of essay writing, high students/teacher population and non-motivation of teachers. The hypothesis showed that significance difference does not exist in the perception of both male and female language teachers. It was suggested that teachers should offer selfless services and take the teaching of essay writing very seriously using better instructional strategy. Also the government should motivate the teachers and employ more teachers to lessen the burden of language teachers.

Keywords: Essay, Organization, Perception, attitude, writing


The use of diary writing as a tool for language practice and learning enhancement in an EFL classroom is the main topic investigated in this paper. The students participating in the study are English major female students at the College of Basic Education, who would graduate to be English teachers in primary schools. 51 students in two “Advanced Writing” classes were asked to write their diaries during the semester. At the end of the semester they were given a questionnaire with 19 statements and 4 open-ended questions. The researchers found that the majority of students enjoyed writing a diary, and believed that their language and writing techniques have improved. They have also reflected pleasant emotional effects such as removing stress, keeping memories and strengthening the student-teacher relationship. The researchers believe that writing a diary is very useful to EFL learners in terms of language learning and enforcing positive energy in the class.

Keywords: EFL, Higher Education, diary writing, journal writing, writing


In the field of teaching EFL students the process of writing an essay, this study was conducted to investigate the influence of diary writing on the students’ writing and language abilities. 52 student participants enrolled in two Advanced Writing classes wrote a daily diary for 14 weeks. During this period, they were given essay writing lessons, and were asked to write four essays throughout the semester. At the end of the semester, the students were given an open-ended questionnaire requesting information about the students’ method of diary writing and its benefits. The analysis of the data obtained showed that the students’ language abilities significantly improved especially the grammar and vocabulary. The students also reported their satisfaction in the free-writing method which allowed them to learn more on self-expression and organization of ideas. The researchers believe that a skilful writing teacher would be able to provide maximum benefit from this experience. This study is believed to be extremely beneficial to language teachers, and more specifically, EFL writing teachers.

Keywords: EFL, Higher Education, diary writing, journaling, writing

The Effect of Critical Thinking Strategies Instruction on Iranian EFL Learners’ Writing Performance across Genders (Review Completed - Accepted)

– The present study has tried to find out whether critical thinking strategies instructions affect Iranian EFL male and female students’ writing performance. After administering Oxford Quick Placement Test (2001) to 120 participants in Shokuhe Iran Language Center in Tabriz Iran, 80 participants were chosen, 40 male and 40 female. Then All 80 participants were divided into control and experimental groups. 40 in control group including 20 males and 20 females and 40 in experimental group including 20 males and 20 females. Control group did not receive treatment about critical thinking strategies, only CLT was the main method in control group. But experimental group received eight weeks of instruction about critical thinking strategies within their learning syllabus. T-test was conducted to compare the subjects’ means and to determine the effect of gender. The results showed that critical thinking strategies had a significant effect on improving Iranian EFL students’ writings across genders, (p<.05). Both male and female performance improved after the instruction of critical thinking strategies.

Keywords: Critical thinking, critical thinking strategies., writing