The Radical Responses of Pandita Ramabai: Challenging the Spirit of her Time through her Writings (Published)
Pandita Ramabai (1858-1922) wrote extensively from her different positions as a social reformer, an activist, a traveler, a deeply spiritual person, as an institution builder and her compulsions led her to pen thoughts. She wrote about the nature and experience of oppressive patriarchal practices, particularly in the context of widowhood, and other distresses in a woman’s life. She was a participant observer who wrote about the women’s question with a piercing gaze. In her books Stri Dharma Niti (1882) and The High Caste Hindu Women (1888), she depicted the darkest side of the life of the Hindu widows most of them mere child in the high caste family and the treatment they receive in the family as well as in the society. The writings of Pandita Ramabai can be classified into two broad arenas: in this category we can put her writing pertaining to her understanding of the questions and issues related to women, and in the second one, her travel writings can be kept which Uma Chakravarti has called ‘journeys of the self’.
Towards Improving the Effectiveness of the Public Procurement Rules of Bangladesh: Lessons from the United Nations Procurement Manual (Published)
Every year Bangladesh has to incur about 14 billion USD through Annual Development Program (ADP) for the procurement of goods, works and services in the public sector. Bangladesh has her home grown laws and regulations to ensure transparency, accountability, fairness, open competition to ensure value for money in the public spending. To this end, Bangladesh is constantly adapting international standard practices. United Nations (UN) has a unique procurement manual through which it procures all the goods, works and services. The standards followed by the UN can be compared with those of the Public Procurement Rules (PPR) of Bangladesh and lessons can be incorporated in Bangladesh to streamline the public procurement.
Luther’s Theological Grounds for the Reformation (Published)
By presenting Maritain’s harsh criticism of Luther, this article attempts to clarify Luther’s theological grounds for his assault on the Church. Essentially, the Church believed that man could be saved by a combination of faith and works, despite his sin and that the Church was the divine instrument of God. Luther believed in the irremediable sinfulness of man and the world, including the Church .Only faith and God’s grace could save man. Once Luther understood Paul in this way, the Church became sin itself, as much in need of God’s grace as the most depraved man. The violence spawned by the Reformation cannot be understood without an appreciation of Luther’s radical and profound denial of the worth of the Church and all other manifestations of the World.