Towards Improving the Effectiveness of the Public Procurement Rules of Bangladesh: Lessons from the United Nations Procurement Manual (Published)
Every year Bangladesh has to incur about 14 billion USD through Annual Development Program (ADP) for the procurement of goods, works and services in the public sector. Bangladesh has her home grown laws and regulations to ensure transparency, accountability, fairness, open competition to ensure value for money in the public spending. To this end, Bangladesh is constantly adapting international standard practices. United Nations (UN) has a unique procurement manual through which it procures all the goods, works and services. The standards followed by the UN can be compared with those of the Public Procurement Rules (PPR) of Bangladesh and lessons can be incorporated in Bangladesh to streamline the public procurement.
Luther’s Theological Grounds for the Reformation (Published)
By presenting Maritain’s harsh criticism of Luther, this article attempts to clarify Luther’s theological grounds for his assault on the Church. Essentially, the Church believed that man could be saved by a combination of faith and works, despite his sin and that the Church was the divine instrument of God. Luther believed in the irremediable sinfulness of man and the world, including the Church .Only faith and God’s grace could save man. Once Luther understood Paul in this way, the Church became sin itself, as much in need of God’s grace as the most depraved man. The violence spawned by the Reformation cannot be understood without an appreciation of Luther’s radical and profound denial of the worth of the Church and all other manifestations of the World.