Tag Archives: Workplace

I got my Vengeance: Sexual Harassment, Coping Strategies and Counterproductive Behaviours in Egypt (Published)

Sexual harassment is a prevailing phenomenon in Egypt. However, there is limited research on workplace sexual harassment and its consequences. The current research tries to examine the relationships between workplace sexual harassment and counterproductive work behaviours. Moreover, the moderating effect of coping strategies on these relationship is also investigated. A convenience sample on 260 working women was drawn from different work settings in Cairo, Egypt. They responded to a three-part questionnaire that assesses workplace sexual harassment, coping strategies, and counterproductive work behaviours. The results indicated that workplace sexual harassment was positively correlated with all aspects of counterproductive work behaviours. Moreover, no moderation effects were obtained for different coping strategies. These results were discussed in the light of the extant theoretical and empirical literature. In addition, limitation, future research and conclusion are also reported.

Keywords: Coping Strategies, Egypt, Sexual Harassment, Workplace, counterproductive work behaviours

Competency-Based Curriculum: A Framework for Bridging the Gap in Teaching, Assessment and the World of Work (Published)

In this era of creative and flexible learning, most vocational education and training (VET) in developing countries still adopt a passive approach to learning where students’ success in examination is based on their ability to reproduce a credible portion of their notes from memory. Although the curricula and teaching methods have remained largely unchanged in developing countries over the years, employers are increasingly demanding technical competencies, analytical thinking, communication and entrepreneurial skills. Essentially, the study seeks to find out how curriculum development processes of CBT provides framework for aligning teaching and learning processes to equip trainees with requisite skills and competencies to perform in the world of work. The study examines relevant literature and policy papers from several databases together with key stakeholder consultations to obtain insights into CBT curriculum development processes, underlying assumptions, philosophies, linkages with Bloom taxonomy of educational objectives, assessment practices and outcomes and their eventual effects on the achievement of relevant skills and competencies required to perform professional tasks. The study shows that although mastery of a job-specific task is important, it does not ensure a competent employee particularly in the context of rapid pace of technological change and high labour mobility. Moreover, when outcomes of learning are tied to descriptions of work, or specific workplace activity, it emphasises tradition and limits transfer of skills and labour mobility, leaving graduates largely for routine and restricted tasks which may not guarantee employability (Nuffield Review, 2008). Prospective employees need to acquire a broader range of soft skills, professional competencies and attitudes to continually adapt and transfer skills and knowledge in different contexts.  It is imperative for industry to engage in innovative forms of collaboration to achieve industry–demand driven form of training and smooth transition of students from school to work. Feedback from assessment must focus on task-oriented information and corrective advice to build students’ self-esteem to self-regulate their learning towards the achievement of learning goals.

Keywords: Assessment, Competency-Based, Curriculum, Skills, Workplace

Competency-Based Curriculum: A Framework for Bridging the Gap in Teaching, Assessment and the World of Work (Published)

In this era of creative and flexible learning, most vocational education and training (VET) in developing countries still adopt a passive approach to learning where students’ success in examination is based on their ability to reproduce a credible portion of their notes from memory. Although the curricula and teaching methods have remained largely unchanged in developing countries over the years, employers are increasingly demanding technical competencies, analytical thinking, communication and entrepreneurial skills. Essentially, the study seeks to find out how curriculum development processes of CBT provides framework for aligning teaching and learning processes to equip trainees with requisite skills and competencies to perform in the world of work. The study examines relevant literature and policy papers from several databases together with key stakeholder consultations to obtain insights into CBT curriculum development processes, underlying assumptions, philosophies, linkages with Bloom taxonomy of educational objectives, assessment practices and outcomes and their eventual effects on the achievement of relevant skills and competencies required to perform professional tasks. The study shows that although mastery of a job-specific task is important, it does not ensure a competent employee particularly in the context of rapid pace of technological change and high labour mobility. Moreover, when outcomes of learning are tied to descriptions of work, or specific workplace activity, it emphasises tradition and limits transfer of skills and labour mobility, leaving graduates largely for routine and restricted tasks which may not guarantee employability (Nuffield Review, 2008). Prospective employees need to acquire a broader range of soft skills, professional competencies and attitudes to continually adapt and transfer skills and knowledge in different contexts.  It is imperative for industry to engage in innovative forms of collaboration to achieve industry–demand driven form of training and smooth transition of students from school to work. Feedback from assessment must focus on task-oriented information and corrective advice to build students’ self-esteem to self-regulate their learning towards the achievement of learning goals.

Keywords: Assessment, Competency-Based, Curriculum, Skills, Workplace

Health Promotion Initiatives for Reintegrating Employees with Depression Disorder Into the Workplace (Published)

This paper focuses on health promotion initiatives for reintegrating employees with depression disorder into the workplace. The paper see depression disorder as a mood disorder that is usually characterized by sadness, fatigue, loss of interest in most activities, and lack of energy in doing work. It discusses the causes and its impacts on the health of employee. Health promotion in this context is the combined efforts of employers, employees and society to improve the health and wellbeing of people at work. The paper notes that the essence of these health promotion initiatives is to create a workplace that provides workers with a mentally healthy and supportive environment while returning to work. Such initiatives discussed in this paper are supportive work health education, health screening, quality circle, holistic approach, communication, incentive, special and multi-modular methodology initiatives. Thereafter, the paper concludes that health promotion initiatives for reintegrating employees with depression disorder into the workplace is important for the employees, the families, employers and the society in general so that such employee may not be a nuisance to the world in general. It is recommended among other things that health promotion in the workplace should be a top priority of the government and employers since one’s health determines his or her ability to work effectively in any organization.

Keywords: Employee, Health promotion, Workplace, depression disorder

ENVIRONMENTAL BARRIERS AND JOB PLACEMENT OF THE PHYSICALLY CHALLENGED IN ORGANIZATIONS IN RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA. (Published)

This work focused on “Environmental Barriers and Job Placement of the Physically Challenged in Work Organizations in Rivers State, Nigeria”. The purpose was to investigate the extent to which the physical environment of work organizations posses as a challenged for the inclusion to the physically challenged in work organizations six selected organizations in Rivers State, Nigeria. The pilot survey, simple random sampling techniques, questionnaires were employed to select respondents. Primary and secondary data were used in the collection of data. Five research questions were raised. In analyzing data that addressed the research questions the descriptive method of analysis was used. The findings of the study includes: lack of policies and practices; Negative public perception; barriers of physical environment; discrimination; lack of records and on the job challenge. Based on these findings the study recommends among others that there should be domestic policies backed by appropriate legislation which will favour employment of the physically challenged; elaborate elimination of physical environmental barriers to enhance access to employment; promotion and sensitization of advocacy groups to enhance the protection of the rights and privileges of the physically challenged.

Keywords: Barriers, Environment, Job Placement, Nigeria, Physically Challenged, Rivers State, Workplace

AFRICAN AMERICANS AND WORKPLACE DISCRIMINATION (Published)

The historical and sociological literature portrays the agony of African Americans who have been and are still victimized by discrimination in the workplace. They particularly face a series of unique problems from the policies and the practices of the organizations or from the actions of the individuals. African American women and several minorities were not allowed to participate in most of the desirable jobs and institutions for decades. Even though this is declared unconstitutional, the discrimination against women and minority groups often persisted. But some work organizations are making progress in their efforts to fight against discrimination. Problems are imposed on the African Americans through the complex interactions of racially motivated negative attitudes. They face employment process biases, push into minority positions, lack of access to network and mentors, difficulties in advancement and promotion, and psychological and emotional maltreatment. For African American males especially, employment discrimination patterns are found. For them, employment had become tough in many sectors from 1970’s to 1990’s, as per Burstein (1985). Studies have found that college- educated African Americans have more difficulty than their Caucasian counterparts in securing employment. Discrimination and stereotypes in education discouraged many from obtaining credentials and skills to get good jobs; the higher the position, the higher the level of discrimination against the African Americans. The employers believed that young African American men were lazy, did not want to work, were immoral, and were not as smart as Caucasian youth. Even if they were employed by chance, they did not receive enough organizational support, had less intrinsic authority, and did not have proper channels of communication and less opportunities of promotion.

Women have to encounter both sexual and racial harassment in the workplace, which involved verbal abuse, epithets, threats, slurs, derogatory comments and unwelcome remarks. This compels them to leave a workplace culture they perceived to be negative and oppressive. They respond to workplace discrimination and racial harassment with anger, rage, hostility, resentment, bitterness and aggression. They often have to face the displacement of feelings of frustration of their husbands. North America’s history of discrimination against African Americans suggests that justice demands effective policies to protect them from human right abuses. Continuation of discrimination and inequalities in work organizations perpetuate a system of injustice and social stratification characterized by imbalance of power and resources. This is a reality of economic, political and social constraint. There is a need for understanding African American experiences in the workplace. The research is essentially an overview of major African American workplace problems that needs to be addressed for an inclusive and diverse workplace. The research will address (a) organizational, individual and structural sources of African American discrimination in the workplace; (b) workplace discrimination, the Affirmative Action controversy, racism and human rights violations of African Americans; and (c) organizational and governmental strategies in response to workplace discriminatory practices.

Keywords: African Americans, Discrimination, Workplace