Role of Women in Riot Torn Noakhali in 1946: An Extraordinary Journey for Peace, Stability and humanity. (Published)
In the 1940s when India was at its final stage of anti-colonial struggle, communal politics had spread its tentacles in the Indian political scene. In 1946 the communal balance of the Bengal Presidency, on the eastern part of India became delicate. Calcutta first witnessed a scene of horrific communal violence in the month of August. This was followed by the devastating communal riot in Noakhali, in the erstwhile Eastern Bengal (now in Bangladesh) where the Muslim majority community unleashed a reign of terror upon the Hindu minority community. But the most horrific part of the riot was that women of the Hindu community were abducted, molested and forcibly married to Muslims. The British government was, however, very indifferent to this situation and did little to calm the situation. It was in this situation that Mahatma Gandhi became the sole source of hope when he undertook a peace-keeping mission in Noakhali to restore communal harmony. More importantly he inspired a number of women to come forward in support of riot affected people. They went into remote villages, stationed themselves there and worked hard to restore harmony between the two communities, to convince the terrified Hindus to stay back and rebuild their social life. As women, the workers were especially empathetic towards the plight of women as there were number of cases of violence, molestation, abduction and forcible marriage. However, despite their best efforts, women achieved limited success. The communal mistrust was so deep that stray incidents of violence continued to happen. The effort to give molested women a new life also came to a naught because very few women were ready to admit that they were raped or molested. However, in those days of gloom the efforts the women made to bring about a positive change cannot be ignored.
An investigative study into the causes and effects of ethno-religious conflicts on women and children in Wukari and Ibi Local Government Areas of Taraba State, Nigeria, 1991 – 2020. (Published)
Conflict is a major problem in any given society and it is often inevitable. Since the re-introduction of democracy in Nigeria in 1999, Nigeria has become a permanent flashpoint of violent conflicts. These conflicts are political, ethnic, or religious in nature, and the consequences are devastating. Taraba State has not been an exception since its creation in 1991, witnessing incessant communal clashes across ethnic and religious lines. These ethno-religious conflicts have attendant debilitating consequences on life and property. The most disturbing aspect is their effects on women and children who are naturally the weaker proportion of any human population. The main thrust of this paper is therefore to isolate the effects of such conflicts on women and children for intense assessment. Thus, in order to do this, the article explores the ethno-religious conflicts in Southern Taraba State of Nigeria, particularly in Wukari and Ibi Local Government Areas. Adopting a multi-disciplinary approach, the article reveals that ethno-religious conflicts in the area of study have severe effects on women and children, causing not only deaths of husbands, children, siblings and loved ones, but destruction of their homes, amenities, social contracts, trusts and so on. The conflicts have also caused severe sufferings on the high number of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs), who are mostly women and children. However, the article suggests the need for restoration and sustenance of peace, not only in Wukari and Ibi LGAs, but Southern Taraba, the State and Nigeria at large, through some immediate and long term solutions.
Uptake of Cervical Cancer Screening and Associated Factors among Women Attending Selected Government Owned Hospital in Abuja, Nigeria (Published)
Cervical cancer is one of female gynecological cancer that causes high morbidity especially in developing countries. It is a preventable disease that can be identified early through screening but the uptake of screening is low in developing countries, Nigeria inclusive. This study assessed uptake of cervical cancer screening and associated factors among women attending selected government owned hospital in Abuja, Nigeria. Descriptive research design was employed and simple random technique was used to select 224 respondents. Questionnaire with reliability index of 0.737 was used as instrument for data collection. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS package. Descriptive statistics of frequencies and percentages was used and results were presented in tables. The outcome of the study shows that 93.8% of the respondents have heard about cervical cancer preventive strategies and only 45.1% had utilized it. The factors identified to influence the uptake of cervical cancer screening services in this study were knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer screening services, affordability, fear of having a positive result, women’s level of education, non recommendation of screening by health workers and accessibility of Hospitals for screening. It is therefore recommended that cervical cancer screening should be made accessible and affordable. Women should be educated on the importance of screening and not to be afraid of positive results.
The contribution of women to the socio-economic and political development of any modern democratic state is essential and indispensable. This paper examines the extent of women participation in politics and national development in Nigeria. The study adopted secondary data as sources of information. The constraints of women participation inpolitics pose as hindrance to national developmentin Nigeria. It is discernible from this study that cultural, environmental, educational and gender factors are major barriers to active women participation inpolitics. It is part of the objectives of this work to realize active women participation in National political life for a sustainable National development.Government at all levels should embark on enlightenment campaign to sensitize the public on the need for more women to embrace and pursue education as this is a catalyst for active women participation inpolitics. It is also recommended that coercive legislations should be made at all levels against every form of discrimination against women.
Perception of Stakeholders’ On Empowering Women for Socio-Economic Development in an Enduring Democracy in North- West Nigeria (Published)
The paper examined the stakeholders’ perception on empowering women for socio-economic development in a enduring democracy in Nigeria. Women are also in the capacity to assist government achieve its laudable goals and objectives through public enlightenment and national mobilization campaigns. In general, education wipes away ignorance, political apathy and encourages mutual; understanding and cooperation among the various strata in any given society. The population of this study consisted of all the stakeholders in education that comprised the students, graduates, teachers, school administrators, Ministry personnel, Quality Assurances officers in the North-west zone of Nigeria. The population total was 1970 out of this numbers, 1261 respondents were proportionately selected for the study. Four states were selected out of the seven North-western states using purposive sampling technique. 3 research questions were raised for the study and three (3) objectives, descriptive statistics was used to answer the research questions.. The study concludes that significant association exist between empowerment and socio-economic development of women by stakeholders’ in an enduring democracy in’ Nigeria. It was recommended that empowerment can successfully be achieved by designing and implementing well planned and organized educational programmes . Women need greater access to educational opportunities, skills acquisition and position of authority for them to be truly empowered.
This piece looks at various conceptual and empirical reviews done within the last two decades on breast cancer and media campaigns. A thorough review of the materials generated for the study showed that there are many empirical studies on breast cancer and communication interventions/campaigns aimed at raising the awareness and knowledge levels of women on breast cancer prevention and early treatment. However, the reviews showed that most media campaigns on breast cancer do not accommodate the men folk in the entire process. This is against prevalent advice that men should be encouraged during communication interventions to remind their wives, sister, mothers and female colleagues to engage in breast self examination and early treatment. It is recommended that the men folk should be considered in planning the campaigns since they could also suffer from breast cancer.
The Role of Women in Agricultural Economy in Ethiopia: The Case of Aira Woreda in Western Wollega Zone, Oromiya Regional State (Published)
Women play active role in almost all aspects of agricultural activities across the world. However, their contribution is underestimated due to the deep rooted gender based division of labour in developing countries. So the study concentrated on the reflection of women’s role in agricultural economy in Aira woreda western wollega zone Oromiya regional state. The objective of this study is to assess the evidence based role of women in development in general and agricultural economy in particular. The study was conducted by using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The relevant data collection tools such as interview, Focus group discussion guideline and questionnaires were used. Using these method relevant data was gathered and these data were analyzed in descriptive way. It was found that women’s role is more important for economic development in general and agricultural development in particular. These findings also indicate that women play a significant role in almost all aspects of agricultural activities such as crop production, animal husbandry, domestic and other income generating activities. Finally the study has concluded that the role of women is important for economic development in general and effective development of agricultural sector in particular. Based on the findings the researcher recommends that, education is the most important tools to aware the existing social barriers that undermine the role of women in agricultural activities and also multifaceted efforts have to be made to avoid harmful traditional perceptions that hinder the participation of women in agricultural sector.
Demystifying Women’s Apathy Towards Rural Community-Based Cooperative Societies in Nigeria: An Empirical Insight (Published)
The main thrust of this paper was to examine women’s apathy towards rural community-based cooperative societies in Nigeria. The study specifically examined the types of cooperatives in the study area, the reasons for women’s membership of cooperatives, reasons for women’s apathy towards cooperatives and the socioeconomic determinants of women’s involvement in cooperative societies in rural communities. The study was carried out in Cross River State, Nigeria. The population of the study comprised all rural women in the study area. The respondents consisted of 145 randomly selected rural women. Data were collected with the aid of a validated structured questionnaire and interview schedule. Data obtained were analyzed using mean, mean deviation, ranking and probit regression model. The result of analysis revealed that different cooperative societies exists in the area, women join cooperatives for various reasons such as access to loan/grants, to attract government support, access to farm input, access to educational opportunities, among others. It was also noted that women’s apathy towards cooperatives is associated with their lack of land ownership right, domestic responsibilities, and poverty etc. The age, marital status, level of education and occupation of women were significantly related to their participation in cooperatives. It was recommended among others that government should provide credit facilities to rural women to enhance their financial autonomy and participation in cooperative societies.
The aim of this study was to produce dress patterns for women with figure flaws in Anambra State. A sample of ninety teaching and non-teaching female staff with obvious figure flaws falling into 3-size categories was purposively selected for the study. The study involved taking body measurements, drafting, adapting, altering, cutting out and assembling the garment pieces. After which garments were modeled by the models. Judges and the models assessed the clothing fit and wearing comfort. The obtained data from the assessment instruments were analyzed using mean. Findings from the study showed that the widest distribution of values indicative of figure flaws were found in the bust, waist, and hips. The widest alterations to the drafted patterns related to the hips, waist and bust. The average rating of the clothing fit and comfort by the judges and models were satisfactory respectively. The block patterns developed are recommended for professional tailors and fashion designers.
Women and Gender Equality in Chinese Law Today (Published)
The path towards equality of the sexes before the law has been a long road for China; one whose twists and turns have been sharp and crooked, and whose dips and crevices have been deep. China has made great strides down this road, but there is much ground yet to cover. Women in the world of Chinese law today are far better off than their counterparts a generation, or even a decade, ago; yet true gender equality has yet to be achieved. This paper analyzes the status of women in the law in China. It takes the form of a literature review of both Chinese and English language sources on the subject, drawing primarily from scholarly journals analyzing the subject going back as far as the late 1800s. This paper looks primarily at the status of women in the legal academy and profession, but also delves into the world of civil (that is, family or domestic) law in China and the current situation of the average female litigant in disputes in this area. In both instances, the status of women has been found to be disadvantaged in comparison to that of men. The literature finds that the laconic state of women persists today largely due to entrenched cultural norms and perspectives regarding the role of women as subordinate to men, pressures resulting from a China that has and continues to undergo massive societal and economic transition, and uniquely also from modes and norms of communication and power-sharing (such as “guānxī” and “face”) that seem to disadvantage women socially. These factors act as a countervailing force against more progressive trends that seek to build a more inclusive legal world for women in China, whether stemming from the rhetoric of the Communist Party or from the newer free market model which China has adopted. Progress towards gender equality in the law in China has been substantial, but is still wanting.
The Attitude of Married Men and Women towards Family Planning Practices in Ekiti State, Nigeria (Published)
The study investigated attitude of married men and women towards family planning practices and the relationship between attitude and family planning practices in Ekiti State. Descriptive research of the survey design was used. The population for the study included all the married men and women in the 16 local Government Areas of Ekiti State. With the use of multistage sample procedure, a total of 1200 respondents were selected from the 16 local Government Areas of Ekiti State. A self-designed instrument was used for the study. The instrument was titled “Knowledge, Attitude and Family Planning Practices Questionnaire” (KAFPPQ). The instrument was validated by the researcher’s supervisor and experts in the field of English Language, Guidance and Counselling and Tests, Measurement and Evaluation. Split-half reliability method was used to ascertain the reliability of the instrument. A reliability coefficient of 0.82 was obtained and this is high enough to judge the instrument reliable. The instrument was administered by the researcher and trained research assistants in the Local Government Areas selected. The data generated were analysed using frequency counts, percentages and correlation analysis. It was discovered from the study that the attitude of married men and women towards family planning practices in Ekiti state is positive. The result further shows no significant relationship between attitude and family planning practices among married men and women in Ekiti State. The result showed significant relationship between religion and attitude towards family planning practice among married men and women in Ekiti State. Based on the findings of this study, it was concluded that the attitude of married men and women towards family planning practices in Ekiti state is positive. It was recommended that Nigeria government should encourage the establishment of daycare centres within public and private service areas so that married men and women will have the convenience of going to get contraceptives.
Terribly Victimised Gender of Kashmir Conflict: A Women-Centric Perspective of Nayeema Mahjoor’s lost In Terror (Published)
Jammu and Kashmir has been a bone of contention between India and Pakistan since the partition of the subcontinent in 1947. This picturesque valley, which has since been under the domain of India, has seen many uprisings. The movement for freedom ‘Azadi’ has left a deep imprint upon the minds of the inhabitants, but mostly it is the women of Kashmir who have been the worst hit victims. There have been many books depicting the Kashmir issue from a man’s perspective but hardly any from the women’s point of view depicting their suffering and misery. Logically only a woman can better express the traumas of women. Fortunately this need was fulfilled by Nayeema Mahjoor in the form of her novel Lost in Terror, perhaps the first novel, which shows the another side of the conflict ‘women side’ by realistically narrating the sufferings which a Kashmiri woman goes through. The present paper attempts to make an assessment of the miseries and problems Kashmiri conflict –torn women have to face. It will also deliberate on how Nayeema has become the representative voice of the women community, most importantly so because she herself has been a victim like thousands of others, which strongly authenticates her narration as first hand and valid.
Women Rights: Myth or Reality, With Special Reference to George Eliot’s Adam Bede and Toni Morrison’s Beloved (Published)
This paper focuses on the rights denied to women in the works of George Eliot’s Adam Bede and Toni Morrison’s Beloved. Both the writers belong to different times and social strata. The significant portion of this paper is related with female rights, marriage and oppression of women in the society. The paper also deals with the modifications and the outlook of women characters as they stand against the rules and regulations persisting during those times. Both the writers have used their works as a device to announce their distresses in relation to the women roles and gender clashes in the social community. As educated and well read women, both George Eliot and Toni Morrison have shaped woman characters in order to confirm that women are also gifted with intelligence and wisdom and are capable of being sensible and sound. Eventually, this paper shows that both the writers courageously confront and defy the culture and civilization and stand up for women in relation to marriage, school, profession and dedicate themselves to writing profession from the viewpoint of women with an endeavour to reveal their place in the society by focusing on their shortcomings, judgment and attitude against the ruthless norms and culture of male dominated society.
Women Participation in Agriculture, Prospects and Challenges for Increased Food Production in Enugu State – Nigeria (Published)
The paper examined women participation in agriculture, their prospect and challenges for increased food production in Enugu State-Nigeria. It explained elaborately how committed women are in making food available for the fast growing population in Nigeria. Women activities in production, processing, marketing of agricultural products among other, were highlighted. The challenges women are facing to enhance food production were also pointed out. These challenges include; lack of access to productive resources like land, customs and tradition in some parts of Nigeria, low level of training /education among others. Recommendations to improve on the challenges were proffered, these include that the level of women training in agricultural production needed to be enhanced, that government should look into laws of land tenure and tradition placed on land acquisition and use, especially as it affect women in agriculture.
The Meaning of Women in Online Indonesia Dictionary: The Identity of Women and Informational Society (Published)
The On-line Indonesian Dictionary is a dictionary used as a reference to the meaning of words. References to the meaning of women form identity in the informational society. Women use information media in forming their identities, so the words described in the sentence have references that are acknowledged as references that can be accounted for. But what happens when women are defined as someone who reflects an individual who is normatively included in the category of bad and contemptible behavior. Paradis in the on-line language dictionary is a form of system representation in shaping women’s construction in social practice. Research by using women as actors involved in the inclusion of the meaning of defines the Indonesian language dictionary on-line states strongly disagree over the treatment obtained himself. Meaning of the word woman in Indonesian on-line dictionary greatly influence woman in determining the identity of woman. Informational societies require several references which in the identification of its identity include in this case an on-line dictionary. They realize that women need supportive conditions for a system that is solid in representing women to be equal and worth the men. In order for this on-line language dictionary not to be a reference that places women in a subordinated order in society then this dictionary should be redefined in accordance with the wishes of Indonesian women.
The role of women in the economy of Ehugbo during the colonial period has remained largely understudied by historians. This is in spite of the fact that both in terms of their numerical strength and economic importance, women’s role in Ehugbo deserves attention. This paper argued that through their collective and individual activities, the women-folk, both as mothers, farmers, traders and producers, wielded enough economic power to contribute significantly to community, state and international development. They were responsive and receptive to economic opportunities and innovations. This did not obfuscate the fact that during the colonial period, the people’s efforts and resources were not used for the development of their area but were rather exported to the metropolitan country. Also since it was reasoned that a woman’s place in the society was the home, the colonial government never thought in terms of encouraging the women in develop their potentials through its administrative and economic policies neither was it deemed expedient by the colonial government to integrate the women into the development process of the colonized areas. It is argued that in their various endeavours, women demonstrated remarkable creativity, ingenuity and entrepreneurship, which enabled them to face the challenges of the period. With their economic power, the women were well placed to actively participate in the development of the area.
Availability of HIV/AIDS Information to Women in Ikom Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)
The study was carried out to determine how HIV/AIDS information was made available to women in Ikom Local Government Area. Survey method was used through the administration of questionnaire. 300 copies of the questionnaire were distributed. The return was 90%. It was revealed that, due to poverty and the low level of education, the women found it very difficult to have access to available HIV/AIDS information whenever it was made available. It is therefore, recommended that adult schools should be established in all Local Government Areas of Cross River State especially Ikom Local Government Area to educate the women and sensitize them about the dangers of this deadly disease and how to prevent it especially from mother-child. By educating the women, it will enable them access available HIV/AIDS information at the appropriate time. Women should be empowered so that, they do not rely entirely on men financially.
The successful political revolutionary transformations fulfilled by the Arab Spring of 2010-11, acted as a catalyst for synchronous cultural, social and sexual changes. The ‘double revolution’ heralded the emergence of the new woman, transitioning from the docile and conservative, into a concupiscent hermaphroditic rebel, who dares to demand her sexual rights and freedom, challenge the existing norms and disclose her sexual trauma, pleasures, and desires. The body is ‘revolutionized’ and instrumentalized to resist marginalization and to propound bodily and sexual rights. There is an attempt to establish a relation between the historical events and their literary portrayal. The gender perspective of the Arab Spring is analyzed through examples of Arab women artists, whose works in literature, graffiti, blogs or social media, reflect the changes in the ‘Spring’ woman’s character, thought, and conceptualization of sex. Their opus epitomizes the new feminine subjectivities created through the intersection of gender, class, and nation.
This study examines the contribution of information communication technology to poverty reduction among women.The study assessed availability and accessibility of ICT infrastructures, the role of ICTs in poverty reduction among womenand determine factors that hinder accessibility of ICT tools among women. The study was done in kilosa Morogoro and involved a total of 50 respondent. The study used survey research methodology to collect data. Three instruments were applied to facilitate data collection,that is structured questionnaire for interview, observation and documentation (secondary data) collected from household as a base of data collection as well as ICT telecentre and other sources of data. The data was collected and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Scientist. Findings show that male respondents were 38% while females were 62%. Of the sample population who use ICT 60% were females while 38% were males. This study provided a first look on the role of ICTs to poverty reduction among women by identifying the benefits of ICT which are: job creation, banking services, improvement agriculture by ensuring availability of market, prevent middlemen exploitation,expanding and strengthening social networks and ensure accessibility and ownership of assets. The conclusion of the study calls for increasing investment in education, creating awareness among women regarding the range of services provided, improvement of ICT infrastructure, reduces cost in ICTs services provision, public and private investment is a vital tool therefore maximization of employment opportunity, including physical infrastructure, and entrepreneurial skills. The study suggests one area for further research: one is the extent to which ICTs infrastructures helps women in poverty reduction compared to those who do not use by specifying indicators of development brought by ICT tools.
The paper argues that gender discrimination is as old as creation. Over the years women were made to belief that their rightful place was in the home front as housewives producers and minders of children. The paper focuses on cultural, societal and religious practices, in our traditional society that prevent women from contributing their quota to both the community and the nation at large. In this modern world where women have assumed prominent roles in the economic, political, and social developments in different societies, there is a clarion call for both the government and other men of the country to be supportive of their female counterparts as this will enable them to exhibit their potentials for the benefit of the development of our nation. The paper concludes that there should be mass literacy campaign towards women education. Education shapes the life of women by equipping them with knowledge, skills, right attitudes and values to participate effectively and also contribute meaningfully to national development.