Women Entrepreneurship and Gender Equality as a Tool for Social Transformation in Nigeria: Evidence from Selected Rice Farmers in Anambra East Local Government (Published)
Women are viewed as the foundation of development of country and national economies as well as agents of social change. Nonetheless, traditions, beliefs and cultural norms limit women’s capacity to acquire land and add to increase gender gaps in the quality and size of owned farmland. This kind of challenge made rural women to form different associations and groups, for instance, Rice Farmers Association, The Village Savings and Loan Associations and Daily Contribution association etc to empower themselves. This research examined the “Omambala” Women’s Rice Farmers Association in South East area of Nigeria and how the women group has achieved social change around there. Majority of the members (over 94%) are smallholder farmers. These women make consistent membership contributions, a social fund contributions and records are kept and the monies kept in a saving funds box, which is opened at a concurred time. Individuals members get their monies as per the sum contributed and the social fund contributions is used to purchase farm implements and inputs for members, build social amenities, reconstruct health care centers, re-construct dilapidated school blocks, offers grants to poverty stricken children and so forth. This paper examines the viability of this women rice farmers association as an instrument for gender balance and social transformation in Anambra State Nigeria. This research was done in villages at Anambra East local government where majority of the women are farmers and makes farming their major means of livelihood. 160 members and administrators of the group were interviewed using key informant interview and Focus Group Discussions. Data generated was analysed using simple percentage and frequency tables. Findings from the research shows that women farmers contributes a great deal to social change and economic development; traditions, beliefs and cultural norms influences the performance level of these women and climate change is an obstruction to their growth. The investigation in this manner prescribes that, to increase gender gaps, women ought to be permitted to possess farmlands; cultural norms that limits women from taking part completely in agriculture ought to be abrogated. Moreover, sufficient measures should to be taken by people and government to forestall flooding during raining season.
Women in Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies (Published)
Some of the greatest challenges being faced globally especially in the 3rd World countries are issues bordering on unemployment, poverty, terrorism and other social ills. Efforts must be made by any progressive government to eradicate these or reduce them to the barest minimum in order to promote the economic development of a nation. A sure way to do this is to promote entrepreneurship as this is seen as the ‘engine’ of economic growth and development of a nation. The population of the women folk is 49.36 per cent of the total population in Nigeria as at 2011 (World Bank Report) A nation that is determined to progress and boost its economy must realise the economic potentials of women and invest in developing the entrepreneurial acumen of this gender who traditionally are discriminated upon and face many constraints when venturing into businesses apart from their traditional roles of home keeping. These constraints may be in form of access to credit facilities, land and other infrastructures, legal, education, family and cultural issues. The women folk are naturally endowed with special skills such as negotiating skills, endurance and other soft skills as pillars of the family. If these constraints that serve as barriers to their economic development are removed, expose them to entrepreneurship education and they are empowered to start their businesses or scale them up, it will go a long way in improving their standard of living and economic potentials, boost their self-confidence as a person, improve their family, their community and the foreign exchange earnings of the nation. Investing in women entrepreneurship development should therefore be seen as investing in our collective future. This will reduce incidences of crime, terrorism, kidnapping and other social ills plaguing the country, and our country ranked among the advanced economies of the world.
This study examined women entrepreneurs’ access to microfinance bank credit in Imo State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were to: determine the socio-economic characteristics of women entrepreneurs, and determine the amount of credit demanded and the amount of loan accessed by women entrepreneurs from microfinance banks from 2009-2013 and their repayment performance. Hypothesis tested was that socio-economic characteristics of women entrepreneurs do not significantly influence their access to credit. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive and logit analytical tools. Data were collected from 80 loan beneficiaries and 71 non-loan beneficiaries selected from Microfinance banks with the aid of two sets of questionnaire. This study identified Microfinance banks as a major source of formal credit to women entrepreneurs with 80.26% of the overall credit requested accessed and repayment performance of 83.41%. Microfinance banks should create incentives to increase women entrepreneurs’ access to credit and loan repayment.
THE EFFECT OF SEX (GENDER) ON THE SUCCESS OF BUSINESSWOMEN IN THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT IN MARKETING IN JORDAN (AN EMPIRICAL STUDY) (Published)
The aim of this study is to address gender barriers in the business environment in Jordan. Two variables that may influence economic success of businesses owned by women entrepreneurs in Jordan were selected for this purpose. These variables are the marital status of female entrepreneur and its effect on her business, while the second variable is related to gender discrimination and whether it is considered a major obstacle facing women entrepreneurs. To analyze data collected from 102 convenient sample of female business owners in private sector and different innovation centers the linear model was used to identify the relationship between the marital status and gender discrimination and success in business. The result of this study shows a positive relationship between the marital status of business owners and success in business and that being a female or single is not an obstacle facing Jordanian women in business. The implications of the results are briefly highlighted.
Strategy Adoption and Women Entrepreneurs in Accessing Credit Facilities In Kenyan Financial Institutions-A Case of Women Entrepreneurs in Komala Municipality, Kisumu County (Published)
The general objective of this study was to find out the influence of strategies adopted by women entrepreneurs to access credit facilities. The target population was 600 business units owned by women entrepreneurs in Komala. A systematic random sampling design was used. Data was collected through structured questionnaires which were personally administered by the researcher. The study found out that group formation enhanced social collateral and hence enabled women who did not have physical collateral access loans. Many respondents who knew how to write business proposal accessed credit while those who accessed credit had to have bank accounts