Researches shows that socio-economic status (SES) correlates with social capital, and groups with low SES, usually have less opportunity to advance their lives. Women’s empowerment and self-confidence are primarily determined by their resources and their ability to make social and economic decisions. Microfinance provided by self-help groups aims to empower women and create social capital. The study examines the change in socio economic status of the SHG members and its subsequent impact on the social capital by analyzing randomly collected responses of 392 SHG members from the state of Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh. SPSS is employed for statistical analysis. The Mann-Whitney U test, the Kruskal- Wallis H test, and the Jonckheeree Terpstra test have been applied judiciously to test hypotheses both before and after data where ever possible.
Women Educational Empowerment and Sustainable Political Development of Nigeria: Akwa Ibom State in Perspective (Published)
The study examined women educational empowerment and the sustainable political development of Nigeria. The population consisted of female lecturers from three higher educational institutions in Akwa Ibom State. These include the University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State University, Ikot Akpaden; and Akwa Ibom State College of Education, Afana Nsit.The cluster sampling technique was used in selecting a sample of 235 respondents out of a population of 2,351 targeted respondents.Two null hypotheses were formulated, based on the specific objectives of the study and tested at the .05 alpha level using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis. Data collection was done with the use of a structured instrument, “Women Empowerment and Sustainable Political Development Questionnaire” (WESPDQ), which was duly validated by experts. The WESPDQ was tested for reliability using the Cronbach alpha approach, with a coefficient of .78 indicating that the instrument was internally consistent. Findings indicated a significant relationship between the two independent variables and the dependent variable respectively. It was, therefore, concluded that women educational empowerment has a significant relationship with the sustainable political development of Nigeria. It was recommended, among other things, that government at all levels (federal, state and local) should formulate policies that seek to empower women educationally to facilitate sustainable political development of the country.
Areas of Male Dominance: Experiences of Married Women in the Mozano Community in Ghana (Published)
The purpose of this study was to assess the experiences of married women on male dominance in Mozano Community in the Central Region of Ghana. The study therefore sought to ascertain the ways married men dominate their wives. Qualitatively, phenomenological design with one-on-one interviews and focus group discussions were employed for collection of data. The population for the study was the married couples in Mozano community. Since Mozano attracts pilgrims and visitors on daily basis, only couples who attend Mozama Disco Christo Church (MDCC) and are permanent residents in Mozano were purposively sampled for the study. In terms of the study, the researchers ensured that the participants meet the following inclusion criteria: (1) availability and willingness to participate in the study; (2) couples who have married for five years and above; and (3) permanent residents in Mozano who attend the MDCC. The study involved 20 participants. This comprised fifteen married women and five married men who were heads of their households. The study revealed that most men dominate their wives in the area of reproduction because most women are ignorant of their reproductive rights. Most men decide on the number of times they will have sex, the number of children they will have and when to have a child without the consent of their wives. Most men see no need to involve their wives in decision making because they think women on their own cannot take or contribute to any meaningful or responsible decision. Religious factors and the doctrines of the MDCC have contributed to male dominance on married women in the community and lack of descent and profitable jobs for women in the community have made them to be dominated by their husbands. It was therefore recommended that married women in the Mozano community should make a personal choice to develop their capabilities to the maximum degree without regard for culturally and religious obstacles. There is also the need for gender education by the Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Protection to organise seminars and symposia for men in the Mozano community on the need to involve their wives in decision making at all levels.
CONTRIBUTION OF MICRO CREDIT PROGRAMME IN EMPOWERING WOMEN: A SPECIAL REFERENCE TO KILINOCHCHI DISTRICT IN SRI LANKA (Published)
The prime objective of this study was to assess the impact of micro credit in empowering poor women before and after joining with micro credit programmes. The study was conducted at Kilinochchi District in Sri Lanka as one of the war affected areas. Both qualitative and quantitative methods have been used to obtain a reliable data. Data were derived from a questionnaire survey of a sample of 94 women clients and three focus group discussions were conducted involving 18 women while in-depth interviews were carried out with another 12. The paired sample statistics was used to find out the significant differences between before and after joining the micro credit programme. The study indicated that the income levels of the majority of the clients have increased after the delivery of micro credit. The results have also been shown in the enhancement of the women’s self-confidence with respect to the capability to work on their own and improve their lives. The study concluded that the microfinance activities are necessary for the overall empowerment except access of micro credit.
Microcredit And Poverty Alleviation: Strategy For Women’s’ Economic Empowerment In Hududullah Microcredit Company Limited, Birnin Kebbi (Review Completed - Accepted)
Considerable concern has emerged on micro credit and poverty alleviation programmes; little has been explored with respect to microcredit and women empowerment. This paper examines the strategy for women’s empowerment by Hududullah Microcredit Company in Birnin Kebbi, with the view to ascertain the level of poverty reduction on women that are participating in the programme. A sample of 100 women were randomly were selected from a population of 500 women. Primary data was collected using interview method in other to avoid dialect and illiteracy problems. Collected data was analysed using frequencies and percentages on a tabular form. The findings reveal among others that loan was accessible to the women productively utilized by them and raised their level of economic self employment and reliance. Also repayments were successful
The Women of Osofisan: Beyound Fiction (Published)
Women in the African past, contrary to being domesticated were not only achievers in their own right but also pillars of society. A voyage into African and especially Nigerian history gives a picture of outstanding women who contributed to trade and governance in their various communities and societies. Moremi in pre-colonial Ife kingdom, the Aba Women, Funmilayo Ransome Kuti and the Egba Women during the colonial era not to mention other outstanding women in Yoruba and Hausa kingdoms such as Queen Amina, Madam Tinubu and Efunsetan Aniwura (Iyalode Ibadan) demonstrated that women are not mere domestic servants who should be suppressed, subjugated and thrown about. They too have a place in the society. In modern times, women are still performing such leadership roles and are depicted in such roles by writers, like Femi Osofisan, in their writings. In an interview session, Osofisan, a prolific, renowned and outstanding African writer, discusses his motives in creating the female characters in his works the way he does. He explains and analyses the roles he ascribes to women in his writings and how his female characters like Morountodun, Tegonni, Wura, Alhaja, the Women of Owu and others serve to project leadership roles, serve as innovators and societal consciences. He also comments on the impact and significance of these women characters in society and the conditions that would make it possible for women to achieve such outstanding roles in real life. This paper therefore, presents Osofisan’s women as conceived by the playwright himself.