Histological Effects of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Cadaba farinosa on the Gastrointestinal Tract of Adult Wistar Rats (Published)
In a global context and developing countries Nigeria inclusive, herbal medicines are major source of healt:hcare. Among plants widely used as therapeutic agents for treating various forms of cancer is Cadaba farinosa. However, there are limited published reports about the possible therapeutic effects of this plant especially on the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of aqueous stem bark extract of Cadaba farinosa on the gastrointestinal tract of adult Wistar rats.Thirty adult rats of both sexes were used and divided into five groups of six rats each. Group 1 served as control. Aqueous extracts were administered to study groups (2, 3, 4 and 5) at different doses of 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg respectively. Haematological parameters such as RBC count and RBC indices (Hgb, MCV, MCH and MCHC) determined after 28 days (sub-chronic) using standard techniques. Histology of gastrointestinal tract was examined at highest dose of 400mg/kg. This study showed that acute oral administration of aqueous stem bark extract of Cadaba farinosa is relatively safe up to 5000mg/kg body weight/day. Histological findings showed normal sections of gastrointestinal tract among study groups. However, there are increased goblet cells proliferations and secretions in animals treated with various doses of extract. The haematological parameters were within normal limits.Aqueous stem bark extract of Cadaba farinosa in animal models ameliorates gastrointestinal mucosal damage resulting from reduced mucosal barrier from mucus secretion (anti peptic ulcer).
Toxicopathological Investigation of the Effects of Ethanol Corm Extract of Zygotritonia Crocea on the Liver of Wistar Albino Rats (Published)
Toxicity and histopathological effects of ethanol corm extract of Zygotritonia crocea traditionally used for treatment of intestinal disorder associated with typhoid, diarrhoea and dysentery in South-west, Nigeria was studied on the liver of Wistar albino rats. Rats were randomly distributed into groups A, B and C (n=7). Groups B and C received 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight extract respectively per day through oral cannula for 21 days while group A (control) received 0.3 ml normal saline for the same period. Then, the liver was collected for histopathological examinations. The mortality rate of treated rats was 42.86% for both doses on the 7th and 14th day while 57.14% was recorded on the 21st day for rats treated with 200 mg/kg compared with the untreated rats (control). Histopathatological findings showed that the liver sections of the treated rats have clear evidence of degenerative changes and cyto-architectural distortions of the hepatic parenchyma which was more severe with the higher dose. These findings show that Z. crocea is toxic at the doses investigated and therefore, will need some caution in its consumption.
Histomorphometric Effects of Sildenafil Citrate on the Testis of Normoglycaemic and Hyperglycaemic Adult Wistar Rats (Published)
Histo-morphometric effects of sildenafil citrate was investigated on the testes of adult Wistar rats. Twenty five male Wistar rats were weighed before and after the experiment and categorized into four treatment groups and one control group of five rats per group (n=5). They were treated with the following regimen for eight weeks duration. The control group (A) received feed mash and water ad libitum. Treatment groups B and C were the normoglycaemic groups and received low dose (1mg/kg body weight) and high dose (2mg/kg body weight) of sildenafil citrate, respectively. Groups D and E were the hyperglycaemic groups, treated with low dose (1 mg/kg body weight) and high dose (2 mg/kg body weight) of sildenafil citrate, respectively. Blood samples were collected for hormonal assay and the testes were excised and processed for morpholological changes.The results obtained showed significant (P<0.05) loss in both body and testicular weight in the hyperglycaemic groups, but insignificant (P>0.05) body weight gain in the normoglycaemic groups and insignificant (P>0.05) epididymal weight difference loss in all the treatment groups, compared to control. The hormone assay showed significant (P<0.05) difference in the levels of FSH, LH, testosterone and oestrogen in the hyperglycaemic groups compared to control. Testicular and epididymal tissues revealed mild distortions in hyperglycaemic treatments but with dose dependent improvement while the changes in the normoglycaemic treatments were essentially non-remarkable. The results suggest relative safety of sildenafil citrate in normoglycaemic and hyperglycaemic states, with beneficial testicular effects in the latter condition.
Histomorphological Effects of Aqueous Leaf Extract Of Phyllanthus Amarus Shum and Thonn on the Testis of Adult Wistar Rats (Published)
The study was conducted for twelve weeks to investigate the effects of 250 mg/kg body weight of ethanolic leaf-extract of Phyllanthus amarus on the morphology and sperm parameters of the testis. Twenty (20) adult male Wistar rats were categorized into two groups of ten rats each (n=10) with A (control), B (to assess the effects of the extract on testicular morphology and sperm parameters). The body and organ weight of the experimental animals were noted before and at the end of the experiment and the significance of data was analyzed using student t- test (p<0.05). The results revealed no significant difference (p>0.05) in the body and organ weight between the experimental groups and the control. There were significant difference (p<0.05) in the total sperm count, sperm motility and viability in the treatment group compared to control with obvious decrease in all the parameters. The rats treated with ethanolic extract of P.amarus showed various degrees of testicular degeneration compared to the control demonstrating seminiferous tubular lumen with scanty spermatozoa, distorted seminiferous epithelium and arrested differentiation and progression of germ cells into the lumen. The epididymis also showed scanty and moderate clusters of spermatozoa in the lumen with thickened epithelial lining. The findings are consistent with anti-fertility remarks on the effects of P. amarus on testicular morphology and functions.
Histo-Morphometric Effects of Sildenafil Citrate on the Testis of Normoglycaemic and Hyperglycaemic Adult Wistar Rats (Published)
Diabetes mellitus is a known cause of infertility and erectile dysfunction in men. Sildenafil citrate, used in the management of the latter, has been implicated of toxic role on the testis. This paradoxical impression is significant in diabetic men with erectile dysfunction that are of reproductive age. Histo-morphometric effects of sildenafil citrate was thus, investigated for eight weeks on the testes of twenty-five adult Wistar rats, weighed before and after the experiment and categorized into four treatment groups and one control group of five rats per group (n=5). The control group (A) received feed mash and water ad libitum. Treatment groups B and C (normoglycaemic) received low dose (1mg/kg body weight) and high dose (2mg/kg body weight) of sildenafil citrate, respectively. Groups D and E ( hyperglycaemic) were treated with low dose (1 mg/kg body weight) and high dose (2 mg/kg body weight) of sildenafil citrate, respectively. Blood samples were collected for hormonal assay and the testes were excised and processed for morpholological changes. The results showed significant (P<0.05) loss in body and testicular weight in the hyperglycaemic groups, but insignificant (P>0.05) body weight gain in the normoglycaemic groups and insignificant (P>0.05) epididymal weight difference in all the treatment groups, compared to control. The hormone assay showed significant (P<0.05) difference in the levels of FSH, LH, testosterone and oestrogen in the hyperglycaemic groups compared to control. Testicular and epididymal tissues revealed mild distortions in hyperglycaemic treatments but with dose dependent improvement, while the changes in the normoglycaemic treatments were essentially non-remarkable. The results suggest relative safety of sildenafil citrate in normoglycaemic and hyperglycaemic states, with dose-dependent beneficial testicular effects in the latter condition.
Efficiency of Allium Cepa L. Aqueous Extract in Alleviating Anaemia in Phenylhydrazine Induced Haemolytic Anaemic Rats (Published)
Raw onions (Allium cepa L.) have been found to contain powerful medicinal (active) ingredients which could be used to treat or manage certain ailments. In this study, effort was made to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Allium cepa L. on phenylhydrazine induced anaemic rats in order to ascertain the claims by some traditional herbalists in Nigeria of using same to treat anaemic patients. Phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, oxalates and cyanogenic glycosides. Sixteen (16) wistar rats were divided into 4 treatment groups and maintained for fourteen (14) days. One group (normal control) received normal diet only. The second group (anaemia control) was induced with anaemia using phenylhydrazine as haemolytic agent. The group was fed with normal diet. The third group (anaemic test) was induced with anaemia using phenylhydrazine as haemolytic agent. The group also received aqueous extract and normal diet. The fourth group (normal test) received the aqueous extract and normal diet only. The aqueous extract was given through gastric intubation (orally). Induction of anaemia was done by intraperitoneal injection of 125mg/kg phenylhydrazine. The body weights (BWTs) of the rats were monitored throughout the period. After 14 days, the blood samples were taken and used to determine the Packed Cell Volume (PCV) and the haemoglobin (HB) level. The findings revealed that the administration of the aqueous extract significantly affect the HB levels of the rats, as well as their PCV. It is suggested that the use of aqueous extracts of Allium cepa L. by traditional herbalists in Nigeria to treat anaemic patients appears to be justified.
DISINTEGRATION OF THE ISLET CELLS (OF LANGERHANS) FOLLOWING THE ADMINISTRATION OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF GINGER IN ADULT WISTAR RATS (Published)
This study elucidates the effect of ethanolic extract of ginger on the histology of the pancreas. Forty adult wistar rats weighing 190-200g were divided into five groups designated A, B, C, D, and E; each group containing eight experimental animals. The animals in groups A and B served as the control receiving distil water and olive oil respectively. The animals in group C, D, and E received 100mg/kg, 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg body weight of ethanolic extract of ginger respectively for fourteen days. Twenty four hours after the last administration, the animals were sacrificed; the pancreas was removed and processed in routine histological technique. Under the light microscope, the result showed normal exocrine part and disintegration of the islet cells (of Langerhans) with pyknotic nuclei. This study showed that the effect on the islet of Langerhan increases as the consumption increases
THE EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF BRYOPHYLLUM PINNATUM ON THE MICRO ANATOMY OF THE TESTES OF ADULT MALES WISTER RATS (Published)
The main aim of this research study is to determine the effect of ethanolic fractions of bryophyllum pinnatum leaves on the male testes using adult male wistar rats. Thirty (30) adult male wistar rats were divided into three groups of ten rats each. Group (A) serve as the control group and was administered with distilled water, Group (B) was treated with 100mg/kg/body weight of the bryophyllum pinnatum extract. Group (C) received 200mg/kgbw of the extract. The treatment lasted for a duration of 8weeks. The rats were sacrificed the day after the last dose and the testes were removed and processed for histological studies. The results from the treated groups showed increase intercellular spaces within the seminiferous epithelium, shrunken and increase lumen, suggesting cells disintegration. This is indicative that bryophyllum pinnatum extract may have adverse effect on the testes of the treated rats