Tag Archives: WHO

Groundwater Quality Mapping In Ikot Abasi Using Geographic Information System (GIS) (Published)

In this work, the GIS Software Quantum 1.7.0 was used to analyse and create groundwater contoured maps for Ikot Abasi. Five groundwater samples were collected and analysed for some physical parameters (pH, temperature, turbidity, conductivity, total dissolved solids) and trace metals (aluminum, zinc, manganese, chlorine, copper). The physical properties were measured directly using HQ40D multi-parameter, while the trace metals were determined using atomic emission spectroscopy. The water parameters of concern were aluminum and manganese because they had marked departure from the WHO standard. The aluminum values in the area ranged from 0.2 mg/l to 0.4 mg/l, with an average value of 0.34 mg/l which is above the WHO limit of 0.2 mg/l. The manganese values in the area ranged from 2.13 mg/l to 2.18 mg/l, with an average value of 2.16 mg/l which is above the WHO limit of 0.1 mg/l. Treatment measures should be considered to reduce the concentration of these metals.

Keywords: Groundwater, Trace Metals, WHO, ikot abasi

Assessment of heavy metals concentration in crude oil contaminated water samples of three communities of Ikpokpo, Atanba, and Okpele-ama of Gbaramatu Kingdom, along the Escravos River in Warri South West Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria (Published)

Background: Water plays a significant role in maintaining the human health and welfare. Increase in industrialization and various human activities have recently increased the pollution of surface water and ground water (WHO, 1997). The aim of this study was to carry out the analysis of the specified heavy metals present in the crude oil contaminated water samples obtained from six different crude oil contaminated sites of three communities of Ikpokpo, Atanba and Okpele-ama of Gbaramatu Kingdom along the Escravos River in Warri South West L.G.A of Delta State, Nigeria, and to determine their health effects on the affected communities aforesaid. Standard analytical method (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer – (AAS) Analyst 400 model) was used to carry out the analysis. Table 1, presents the WHO maximum permissible limits of some specified heavy metals in normal drinking water sources. Also, the results of the two samples analysed were all being presented from table 2 to 5 as being indicated in a tabular form. Upon comparison, between the mean values of the crude oil contaminated samples (table 5), with the WHO permissible values (table 1) and normal water samples analysed (table 3), It was found out that the crude oil contaminated water samples values were all above the WHO maximum permissible limits of heavy metals concentrations in normal drinking water sources (WHO, 2003, 2005 and 2011).Therefore, there is need for remediation of the crude oil contaminated water samples to the level of WHO standard guidelines.

Keywords: Contamination, WHO, Water Quality, crude oil spills, heavy metals analysis

Assessment of Physicochemical parameters in crude oil contaminated water samples of three communities of Ikpokpo, Atanba, and Okpele-ama of Gbaramatu Kingdom, along the Escravos River in Warri South West Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria (Published)

Background: Water plays a significant role in maintaining the human health and welfare. Due to increase in industrialization, urbanization and various human activities has increase the pollution of surface water and ground water (WHO, 1997). The aim of this study was to carry out the physicochemical analysis of crude oil contaminated water samples obtained from the crude oil contaminated sites of the three communities of Ikpokpo, Atanba and Okpele-ama of Gbaramatu Kingdom of Warri South West L.G.A of Delta State, Nigeria and determine its effects on the aforementioned communities and also to compare the results obtained with other sources of normal drinking water. Results: WHO maximum permissible limits for all the parameters are being presented in Table 1. The results of all the physicochemical parameters analysed using different analytical methods can be summarised as follows: From Table 3, pH of water has mean of 6.8, standard deviation of ±0.147 and the range value is from 6.0 to 7.0. Also, from table 5, the mean is 5.7 and range value is from 5.2 to 6.1, with standard deviation of ±0.354 respectively. Decrease or increase in pH values of water below or above the WHO permissible limits can result in a serious health related complications such as vomiting, cholera, diarrhoea, kidney and liver diseases, stomach cramps and nausea upon consumption. In table 3, the average value is 1.39NTU, the standard deviation is ±0.103NTU and the range is from 1.21NTU to 1.5NTU. The range of the results in Table 5 is from 27NTU to 40NTU and the mean or average value is 31NTU with standard deviation ±3.488NTU. Increased turbidity level in water is not desirable and can lead to some health related issues such as gastrointestinal diseases e.g. perianal abscesses, colitis. More so, from table 3, the mean value of temperature is 28.3˚C and the range is from 28oC to 28.7oC with standard deviation of ±0.248˚C.  Furthermore, the results in table 5, has the standard deviation of ± 1.472˚C, the mean value is 32oC with ranges from 30˚C to 34oC respectively. The average value of electrical conductivity from Table 3 is 187µs/cm and the range is from 180µs/cm -193µs/cm with standard deviation of ±5.269 µs/cm, meanwhile, in Table 5, the standard deviation is ±3889.3µs/cm, average value of electrical conductivity is 24197.2µs/cm and the range is from 16871 to 27300µs/cm. These values are higher than the maximum permissible limits of electrical conductivity in water. The range of TSS values in Table 3 is from 17mg/L to 23mg/L and the mean value is 20.3mg/L with standard deviation of ±2.160mg/L. Upon comparison with the values of TSS from table 5, with mean 35.8mg/L, while the range is from 31mg/L to 40mg/L and standard deviation of ±1033.9mg/L, which were all above the ranges of WHO TSS limit in normal drinking water. This can serve as a growth medium for bacteria and other microorganisms. TDS in Table 3 has the mean value of 118mg/L, the range values from 110mg/L-125mg/L and the standard deviation is ±5.138. Also from table 5, the mean value of 17796.7mg/L and the ranges from 16400mg/L to 19500mg/L with standard deviation of ±2.898mg/L. High content of TDS values produces an unwanted taste and diluted colour in water, indicating that the water is mineralised as such; upon consumption of the water with high TDS limits, can result in health related complications like kidney and heart diseases. Conclusion: On the basis of findings, it was concluded that the crude oil contaminated water samples collected from the crude oil contaminated sites of the three communities aforesaid were all above the permissible limits (WHO, 1997). Meanwhile, the normal drinking water samples obtained within Kano Metropolis, used in benchmarking were consistent with WHO standards.

Keywords: Contamination, Physicochemical Analysis, WHO, Water Quality, crude oil

Groundwater Quality Mapping in Ikot Abasi Using Geographic Information System (GIS) (Published)

In this work, the GIS Software Quantum 1.7.0 was used to analyse and create groundwater contoured maps for Ikot Abasi. Five groundwater samples were collected and analysed for some physical parameters (pH, temperature, turbidity, conductivity, total dissolved solids) and trace metals (aluminum, zinc, manganese, chlorine, copper). The physical properties were measured directly using HQ40D multi-parameter, while the trace metals were determined using atomic emission spectroscopy. The water parameters of concern were aluminum and manganese because they had marked departure from the WHO standard. The aluminum values in the area ranged from 0.2 mg/l to 0.4 mg/l, with an average value of 0.34 mg/l which is above the WHO limit of 0.2 mg/l. The manganese values in the area ranged from 2.13 mg/l to 2.18 mg/l, with an average value of 2.16 mg/l which is above the WHO limit of 0.1 mg/l. Treatment measures should be considered to reduce the concentration of these metals.

 

Keywords: Groundwater, Trace Metals, WHO, ikot abasi