Gender Differences To Access Extension Service On New Wheat Production Technology: The case of wheat producers in Digalu Tijo woreda Arsi zone Oromiya, Ethiopia (Published)
The case study was conducted in three selected kebeles of Digalu Tijo District, Arsi Zone, Oromia Regional State of Ethiopia with the objectives of investigating the difference of access of new wheat packages of men and women, identifying the barriers to women to adopt new wheat varieties. Purposive sampling method was used to select 60 individual respondents, 6 key informants and 3 different focus groups for discussion session. Data was collected using interview guide, focus group discussion guide and key informant checklist. The data were analyzed using statistical package for social science (SPSS) software version 20 and categorization of themes was done to analyze the qualitative data. Transcription, coding and organizing were carried out to make the data meaningful and prepare report. Quantitative methods (frequency and percentages) were employed to analyze quantitative data. The result of the study shows, in wheat production, men have more exposure to events like field days, trainings and other community meetings although both women and men were wheat growers. This implies women have low access to information on wheat production than their male counter parts. Not only this, but as result indicated, the highest percentage share in decision to adopt new wheat packages and primary contact for receiving packages are for men 61.7% and 78.3% respectively. The study revealed that all family members benefited from new wheat packages. There were serious challenges like disease outbreak, input cost, timely input supply and input shortages and lack of information access. These challenges reduced yield and income of the farmers and affected all family and community members even though women and children were highly vulnerable to the effect of the production barriers. The study also identified that no one was negatively affected with the introduction of new wheat technology packages. All respondents confirmed that they were benefited from new wheat technology packages.
PRICE TRANSMISSION ANALYSIS ALONG THE FOOD CHAIN (Published)
Vertical price transmission between wheat and flour markets in Kazakhstan has been analyzed using monthly data during the period 2000-2010. Officials applied a wide variety of policies in response to global wheat price increases, often causing adverse and unintended effects on regional domestic wheat and flour prices. Overall, short-run policies aimed especially at mitigating wheat and flour prices were unsuccessful, causing greater instability and uncertainty in domestic market. The results confirm that price transmission between wheat and flour switched over the period. The PMG model was performed separately with the two regimes, and indicated that price transmission significantly altered under regime changes. Although overall coefficient differences in the two regimes are modest, the results across regions have different patterns in depicting huge differences in coefficients and magnitude. Moreover, The Granger causality test implies that the global wheat price is a good determinant of price differences across oblasts (regions)