Tag Archives: West Africa

Border Security Management and ECOWAS Protocol on Free Movement in West Africa (Published)

Prior to the enactment of the ECOWAS Protocol on free movement, people move from one location to another, there was little or no regards for the artificial borders created by the colonial powers. The vision of the ECOWAS is to create a borderless region where the population will have access to the abundant resources and, able to exploit same through the creation of opportunities under a sustainable environment. Nevertheless, the unrestricted free movement of people in the sub-region resulted to situation of tension among citizens of the receiving country and migrants especially in places where migrants dominate trade and labour. The regimes that are rather weak can become destabilized under such tensions thereby resulting to free flow of criminalities. The challenges of the Protocol have not helped the security landscape of the sub-region even though ECOWAS prides itself as the first region in Africa with the free movement initiative, the Protocol is poorly implemented constituting more security concern than boosting regional trade and economic development. Despite these challenges and threats posed by border insecurity, there is a lack of a common approach in terms of policy formulation, especially from the direction of the government. Therefore, it is on this note the paper seeks to examine these overlapping issues and hold attempts to provide a possible solution in resolving them. Data were obtained using secondary sources and the data were analyzed qualitatively. The paper observed that the prospect of achieving effective border security was truncated due to unrestricted free movement of people and improper implementation of ECOWAS protocol in the sub-region. This uncontrolled and unmanaged border has resulted to infiltration of terrorists/insurgency, loss of government revenue, smuggling or trafficking of illegal goods among others. The paper further revealed that the issue of corruption, poor technological gadgets, and porous nature of the borders among others serve as strong challenge to effective border management in the region. Therefore called for a Paradigm Shift in achieving effective border management to include adequate provision of funds, use of modern technological gadgets, adequate training of security personnel, strengthening of Multinational Joint Task Force among others. 

Keywords: Border, ECOWAS protocol, Security, West Africa, border management

Analysis of Small Scale Broiler Poultry Production in South East Nigeria, West Africa (Published)

Chiekezie, Njideka Rita ,  Nwankwo, Eucharia Chijindu, Ozor, Maurice U.(2022) Analysis of Small Scale Broiler Poultry Production in South East Nigeria, West Africa, International Journal of Animal and Livestock Production Research, Vol. 6, No.1, pp.1-16

Abstract: The study analyzed the small scale broiler poultry production in South East Nigeria, West Africa. Specifically, the study examined the socio-economic characteristics of the farmers, the cost and returns of the enterprise, influence of socio-economic characteristics on Net income and challenges to production in the study area. Primary data used for the study was collected using well-structured questionnaire which was administered to 405 sampled broiler poultry farmers in the study area. Descriptive statistical tools (frequencies, percentages and means), enterprise budgeting techniques (Gross margin, Net return on investment, Gross Ratio) and Multiple Regression Analysis were used to analyze the data. Profitability Index (PI) was N0.26 which means that for every naira earned as revenue, 0.26kobo was returned to the farmer as net income. An R2 of .7770 explains 77.7% of the variability of the dependent variable.  Four out of the ten parameters included in the model exerted statistic and significant influences on the amount of income realized. Major constraints to Broiler poultry production in the study area were high cost of feed, high cost of vaccines and high cost of day old chicks. Based on the study, the following recommendations are made; since broiler production is profitable, attention should be paid to the broiler farmers to ensure that best practices are adopted for sustainability in the agribusiness.

Keywords: Analysis, Broiler, South East Nigeria, West Africa, poultry production, small-scale

Export Diversification Determinants in West African Sub-Region (Published)

This paper empirically studies the export diversification determinants in west Africa sub-region as diversification is critical for the region to promote sustainable development and economic transformation. The study used regression to analyze the data sourced from 17 west African countries from year 1995-2015. The results suggest that per capital income, human capital, investment, geographical location and good governance are significant drivers of export diversification, while terms of trade and population have negative relationship with export diversification in Africa. The evidence shows that export diversification is necessary in managing sustainable development in Africa. The study recommend among other things that the region should come up with an efficient governance that formulate and implement sound economic policies, create investment friendly environment and should pursue an aggressive process of export diversification that will result in buoyant and robust economy which will reduce high dependent on imported goods.

 

Keywords: African continent, Developing Economy, Export diversification, West Africa, economic growth

Gaps in Marketing: Challenges for Business Education in the West African Senior Secondary School Commerce Curriculum (Review Completed - Accepted)

This study evaluated the concepts of commerce and marketing, the bases of, and dynamic phases of marketing and advanced rationale for integrating additional contents of marketing in the West African senior secondary school commerce curriculum. Topical elements in the existing West African senior secondary school commerce curriculum were identified for the proposed integration as a way of renewal of the curriculum to meet new challenges facing the learners in the emerging business economy of West Africa. Hence in the light of the existing relationship between commerce and marketing and the changes in the relatively new business worlds, it has become imperative to inject some additional contents of marketing into the existing commerce curriculum in the West African Senior Secondary Schools (WASSS). However, marketing as a discipline is needed to be accorded the right recognition and approved as a stand-alone subject in the West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE).

Keywords: : Business Economy, Business Education, Commerce curriculum, Marketing, West Africa

Commerce and Marketing: Challenges for Business Education in the West African Senior Secondary School Commerce Curriculum (Published)

This study evaluated the concepts of commerce and marketing, the bases of, and dynamic phases of marketing and advanced rationale for integrating additional contents of marketing in the West African senior secondary school commerce curriculum. Topical elements in the existing West African senior secondary school commerce curriculum were identified for the proposed integration as a way of renewal of the curriculum to meet new challenges facing the learners in the emerging business economy of West Africa

Keywords: : Business Economy, Business Education, Commerce curriculum, Marketing, West Africa

BOLSTERING CORPORATE SECTOR PARTNERSHIP IN THE FIGHT AGAINST FINANCIAL CRIMES IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD- THE EXPERIENCE OF WEST AFRICA (Published)

Financial crime threatens the credibility and efficiency of systems and the stability of countries. Countering it requires concerted and collaborative efforts and strategic partnership between the public and private sectors. This paper discusses the roles of the private sector and challenges of compliance with acceptable international standards against money laundering and terrorist financing. The paper suggests that most of challenges, especially with regard to the reporting of suspicious transactions have almost been overcome, yet, there other challenges that remain. It concludes by making recommendations to address those challenges and improving the efficiency of the financial system

Keywords: Corporate Sector Partnership, Developing World, Financial Crimes, West Africa

PLANT BIODIVERSITY OF NIGERIA AND OUR RELIGIONS AND CULTURES IN A CHANGING WORLD (Published)

The plants constitute a major component of the planet earth, which all living things need to sustain their life. The early man being limited in all forms of endowments of humankind, made very little use of these plants. He therefore maintained a stable equilibrium with them. The modern man (Homo sapiens), with his endowments, has asserted himself over other living and non- living things and is making use of the plants in diverse ways. These diverse ways, are in addition to a number of other benefits other living things including human beings, derive from the plants. This paper dwells on the services to which humankind has put the plants in the diverse religions and culture of people in Nigeria. The paper besides reviewing the diverse roles of plants in diverse religions and cultures, also discusses the changes that are now being experienced in the interactions of humankind with the plants. Nigeria is part of the African region, where biodiversity is claimed to be concentrated. It therefore behoves the people of Nigeria, to conserve the plants, so that their sustainability, can be assured.

Keywords: Cultures, Humankind., Plants, Religions, West Africa, Yoruba People.

PLANT BIODIVERSITY OF NIGERIA AND OUR RELIGIONS AND CULTURES IN A CHANGING WORLD (Review Completed - Accepted)

The plants constitute a major component of the planet earth, which all living things need to sustain their life. The early man being limited in all forms of endowments of humankind, made very little use of these plants. He therefore maintained a stable equilibrium with them. The modern man (Homo sapiens), with his endowments, has asserted himself over other living and non living things and is making use of the plants in diverse ways. These diverse ways, are in addition to a number of other benefits other living things including human beings, derive from the plants. This paper dwells on the services to which humankind has put the plants in the diverse religions and culture of people in Nigeria. The paper besides reviewing the diverse roles of plants in diverse religions and cultures, also discusses the changes that are now being experienced in the interactions of humankind with the plants. Nigeria is part of the African region, where biodiversity is claimed to be concentrated. It therefore behoves the people of Nigeria, to conserve the plants, so that their sustainability, can be assured.

Keywords: Cultures, Humankind., Plants, Religions, West Africa, Yoruba People.

ECONOMIC PROSPECTS OF PLANT BIODIVERSITY OF NIGERIA AND THE CHALLENGE OF MANAGING OUR PLANT SPECIES FOR SUSTAINABILITY (Review Completed - Accepted)

Light is beamed on the diverse food-producing plants for human beings, livestock, farm animals and fishes. Light is also shed on shelter-producing plants and the cotton-producing plant, to complete the primary necessities of life, met by plant biodiversity of West Africa – a sub-region important as part of the region in which much biodiversity is concentrated. Some light is equally shed on some other important economic benefits of these plants, as well as the large number of miscellaneous uses of which plant biodiversity is put in West Africa. The paper is concluded with a remark that emphasizes the fact that humankind has established a mutually benefitting interaction with plant biodiversity of West Africa. This benefit has been felt by humankind from diverse economic advantages derived from the plants, while the plants have also benefitted by being improved in their quality, with many by being domesticated, while many have had an extension in their geographical range across the continents of the world, through the intervention of humankind.

Keywords: Cotton-producing Plant, Economic Perspective, Food-producing plants, Miscellaneous Uses, Plant biodiversity, Shelter-producing Plants, West Africa

ENVIRONMENT AND ADAPTATION IN ARCHITECTURE PLANNING AND BUILDING DESIGNS; LESSON FROM THE FOREST REGION OF WEST AFRICA (Published)

In many regions of the world, the natural environment is sometimes severe. Consequently, many methods of adapting architecture to the natural environment are usually provided by man. Traditional architecture is one of these methods. Various types of these traditional architectural designs are found in West Africa. There are, for example, one-room designs with common toilets, common source of water, sanitation and other facilities. There are also group houses and compounds the characteristics of which reflect the traditions of the various tribes and their family life. Many of the architectural design of these houses reflect the significance of the environment and indicate the need to take advantage of the traditional architecture in modern architecture. In spite of the significance of traditional architecture, particularly for adapting to the environment, not much has been done to examine the characteristics and the need to take the advantage of traditional architecture in modern architecture. This is for example the case in West Africa where, even in rural areas, the present day architecture have done a lot to alienate traditional cultures in designs, and eliminate local skills, making the local artisans obsolete. Also, most available studies and books discuss mainly modern architecture to the neglect of traditional architecture. Thus, “environmental decay” has been increasing at an alarming rate, and the “abuse of the environment” has become responsible for a lot of major ecological imbalances. With modern architecture, and the orientation of development towards the Western model, as well as the neglect of the concept of traditional architecture which, in many cases, is in harmony with nature, and with little emphasis on indigenous resources makes the concept of housing for all a mirage. Thus, the need to create ‘model’ architecture with improved housing facilities using local resources and involving community participation with strong motivation cannot be over-emphasized. In doing this, the first step of a good knowledge of the ‘concept’ and characteristics of traditional architecture is essential. Thus, there is an urgent need to have information on the characteristics and usefulness of traditional architecture. This need is of interest to this book, the purpose of which is to document the characteristics of traditional architecture. The study illustrates these characteristics by using major tribes in West Africa.

Keywords: Adaptation, Architecture, Building Design, Environment, West Africa

Environment and Adaptation in Architecture Planning and Building Designs; Lesson from the Forest Region of West Africa (Review Completed - Accepted)

In many regions of the world, the natural environment is sometimes severe. Consequently, many methods of adapting architecture to the natural environment are usually provided by man. Traditional architecture is one of these methods. Various types of these traditional architectural designs are found in West Africa. There are, for example, one-room designs with common toilets, common source of water, sanitation and other facilities. There are also group houses and compounds the characteristics of which reflect the traditions of the various tribes and their family life. Many of the architectural design of these houses reflect the significance of the environment and indicate the need to take advantage of the traditional architecture in modern architecture. In spite of the significance of traditional architecture, particularly for adapting to the environment, not much has been done to examine the characteristics and the need to take the advantage of traditional architecture in modern architecture. This is for example the case in West Africa where, even in rural areas, the present day architecture have done a lot to alienate traditional cultures in designs, and eliminate local skills, making the local artisans obsolete. Also, most available studies and books discuss mainly modern architecture to the neglect of traditional architecture. Thus, “environmental decay” has been increasing at an alarming rate, and the “abuse of the environment” has become responsible for a lot of major ecological imbalances. With modern architecture, and the orientation of development towards the Western model, as well as the neglect of the concept of traditional architecture which, in many cases, is in harmony with nature, and with little emphasis on indigenous resources makes the concept of housing for all a mirage. Thus, the need to create ‘model’ architecture with improved housing facilities using local resources and involving community participation with strong motivation cannot be over-emphasized. In doing this, the first step of a good knowledge of the ‘concept’ and characteristics of traditional architecture is essential. Thus, there is an urgent need to have information on the characteristics and usefulness of traditional architecture. This need is of interest to this book, the purpose of which is to document the characteristics of traditional architecture. The study illustrates these characteristics by using major tribes in West Africa.

Keywords: Adaptation, Architecture, Building Design, Environment, West Africa