Differential Relationships Between the Adequacy of Different Types of Family Resources and Psychological Health and Well-Being: A Meta-Analysis (Published)
This paper includes analyses of the relationships between the adequacy of three different types of family resources (basic resources, financial resources, time availability) and the psychological health and well-being of parents and other primary caregivers of children and adolescents birth to 18 years of age at-risk for poor outcomes. Meta-analysis was used to determine (a) the effect sizes between each type of family resource and psychological health and well-being, (b) the relative importance of each type of resource in explaining variations in psychological functioning, and (c) if the number of items used to measure each type of family resource moderated the relationships between family resources and psychological functioning. The study included 14 studies (N = 2,980 study participants) conducted in the United States between 1986 and 2018. Nine different scales were used to measure the study participants’ psychological health and well-being. All three types of family resources were significantly related to the study participants’ psychological functioning. The size of effect between time availability and health and well-being was larger than the sizes of effect between basic and financial resources and psychological functioning. The larger the number of items used to measure financial resources, the poorer the study participants’ health and well-being. In contrast, the larger the number of items used to measure time availability, the better was the study participants’ psychological functioning. The overall pattern of results is consistent with both family stress theories and family systems theories in terms of the importance of family resources as a determinant of healthy psychological functioning. Additionally, the different sets of analysis provided converging evidence about the relative importance of time availability as a family
Influence of Sex and Years of Incarceration on the Well Being of Prison Inmates in Nigeria (Published)
This paper investigated the influence of sex and years of incarceration on the well-being of prison inmates in Nigeria. The study was carried out in Port Harcourt prison with a sample of 250 inmates who were composed through stratified sampling technique from a population of 2,997 inmates. Five null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study and relevant data for their analysis were collected through an indirect administration of copies of ‘influence of incarceration on prison inmates” questionnaire which was administered by the researchers on the respondents. The reliability coefficient for the five-sub-sections of this instrument and the overall were 0.79; 0.80; 0.80, 0.80, 0.80 and 0.80 respectively. The hypotheses were tested with two-way analysis of variance. The results among other things show that years of incarceration do not significantly influence the psychological, social vocational and educational well-being of inmates. It however influences significantly their physical well being. The results also show that sex does not significantly influence the physical, psychological and social well-being of inmates. Sex however significantly influences the vocational and educational well-being of inmates. These results were discussed and some recommendations were also made. One of the recommendations is that professional guidance counselors and other psychological care givers in prison service should render similar types of assistance/services to all inmates of the prison irrespective of their years of incarceration and sex.
This study investigated the influence of incarceration on the well-being of prison inmates in Nigeria. The study was carried out in Port Harcourt Prison in Rivers State, Nigeria. The population of inmates in this prison at the time of study was 2,997 while the sample of study was 250 inmates. The design of study was ex-post facto design. Five null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study and data for their investigation were collected through the administration of copies of a questionnaire tagged “influence of incarceration on prison inmates (ICPI) the reliability co-efficient of the five sub-sections of the instrument were 0.79; 0.80; 0.80; 0.80 and 0.80 while the overall reliability co-efficient was 0.80. The hypotheses were tested with t-test of independent means and the results show that nature of incarceration does not influence the physical and vocational well-being of prison inmates however, it influences their psychological, social and educational well-being. These results were discussed and some recommendations were also made. One of the recommendations is that psychological and counselling services designed for inmates who are depressed, filled with anxiety, fear and hopelessness should be improved and intensified.
AN ASSESSMENT OF PERCEPTIONS AND KNOWLEDGE OF HEALTH CARE ETHICAL PRINCIPLES AMONG HEALTH CARE PRACTITIONERS IN THE KUMASI METROPOLIS (Published)
Ethical theories and principles in health care are the foundations of ethical analysis. This is because they have become the viewpoints from which guidance can be obtained along the pathway to a decision. Each theory emphasizes different points such as predicting the outcome and following one’s duties to others in order to reach an ethically correct decision. However, in order for an ethical principle to be useful, the theory must be directed towards a common set of goals. Health care ethical principles are the common goals that all health practitioners try to achieve in order to be successful. These goals include beneficence, non-malficence (least harm), respect for autonomy and justice. In addition, are other related principles like; confidentiality, informed consent and truth telling. The objective of the paper finds whether or not health care practitioners in Kumasi are aware and knowledgeable of the use of the ethical principles which their profession confer on them. The research employed the use of questionnaires and interviews to obtain views from 220 respondents from the Kumasi metropolis (Ghana). Respondents gave diverse opinions in respect of their knowledge about these basic principles. The research identifies that many health care practitioners in the Kumasi metropolis attach little or no attention to the implementation of ethical principles. Several recommendations are made in reposting the challenges faced in the implementation of ethical principles. It is to be understood that ethical theories and principles bring significant characteristics to the decision-making process. This therefore makes a research into ethical and moral responsibilities among health care practitioners exclusively relevant.
Psychological Consequences of Early Demise of Spouses and the Effect of the Coping Strategies on the Health of the Survivors in Ogun State, Nigeria. (Published)
This study investigated the effect of coping strategies on psychological consequences of early demise on surviving spouses in Ogun Sate .Two thousand respondents were selected using a purposive sampling technique, while the instrument for data collection was a psychological consequences of early demise on surviving spouses questionnaire (r=0.75). Descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data at 0.05 level of significance.
The results of regression analysis on joint effects of coping strategies on the psychological consequences was significant (F(6,1993) = 387.10, P<0.05). The relative contributions of the coping variables on the psychological consequences variable are in the following descending order: relocating (=4.22, t=21.68, P<0.05), (=4.12, t=19.18; P<0.05), recreation/exercise (=4.12, t=19.18; P<0.05), engaging in more social activities (=3.98, t=18.27; P<0.05), comfort from admirers (=3.14, t=17.44; P<0.05), comfort from children (=2.01, t=12.84; P<0.05) and burying oneself in work (=1.34, t=4.06; P<0.05).
The study identified the psychological consequences arising from early demise of spouses were instrumental for the throes and sorrow experienced by the surviving spouses. The recommendations included: the survivor should relocate to another place to pick up the pieces of their shattered life and start another life again, more over a new widow or widower should seek helpful counsel from experienced widows and widowers who have successfully adjusted to normal life after the tragic event.