Fuel Wood Commercialization and Households Welfare in the Northern Region of Ghana: An Implications for Rural Livelihood Improvement (Published)
Several national forestry policies in Ghana meet resistance and or failure; particularly issues of natural and environment resources use within communities. This is because of the highly dependent nature of people on the environment for sustenance and welfare improvements. This paper examined the major facts which motivate households’ decisions to engage in commercialization of fuelwood; determined the most preferred fuel wood species, and availability of income inequality among sampled districts and establish fuelwood, commercialization and households’ welfare by the travel cost method. The study sampled six districts in the Northern Region based on poverty and rural dependence mode. The paper used the simple random sample along with a structured questionnaire to illicit information from respondents. The results showed that, increased in travel cost and cost of access to forested sites impact negatively on the number of visits for fuel wood. The study further revealed that, benefits from fuel wood commercialization in terms of reducing income inequality differ from district to district. The study recommended that, government and international organizations should facilitate the cultivation forest sites solely for fuel wood harvest to ensure environmental sustainability. In addition, fuel wood harvesters must be taught forest management and conservation strategies in the Northern Region.
Principal’s Management Support Practices for Enhancing Teachers’ Performance in Secondary Schools in Nigeria (Published)
This paper investigated principal’s management support practices for enhancing teachers’ performance in schools in Nigeria. The study adopted the survey research design, the population totaled 5,083 principals and teachers with a sample of 1803 selected using proportionate random sampling techniques. Two sets of questionnaire “Principals’ Management Support Practice for principals and teachers were instruments used for data collection. Four research questions were answered using mean score statistics while the hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha level using z-test. The result showed that school principals lacked supervisory skills and as a result entrusted academic supervision in the hands of external supervisors. Most principals’ feel reluctant to endorse in-service training for their teachers and teachers in turn hid their pursuit for higher degree from principals for fear of victimization. The result on motivation and welfare of teachers showed no significant difference in the mean ratings of both the principals and teachers.
Improving Welfare: Foreign Aid versus Government Social Spending, Evidence from African Countries Using a Quantile Regression (Published)
The study uses a quantile regression to investigate the role of government actions to enhance welfare. Instead of using the Human Development index as a broad indicator of welfare, the analysis focuses on life expectancy at birth, which is more specific and pertinent for the case of less advanced economies. In addition to life expectancy, infant mortality rate is used as additional indicator. To avoid a bias in the estimates generated by a double count of the variable aid, the residual from the regression of social spending on aid is used, instead of the variable social spending itself, as some portions of government social spending are financed by aid. Results reveal that aid does not directly affect welfare. On the opposite, government social spending contributes to increase life expectancy, reduces infant mortality, and therefore plays an important role in the improvement of welfare. In addition, the impact of social spending on welfare appears stronger in the countries with poor welfare indicators, than the countries with relatively better welfare indicators.
The provision of potable water for human sustenance both now and in the future is one of the most critical issues in the world today. This paper sought to assess the sustainability of potable water distribution in Ghana through the Contingent Valuation Method in Kumasi, Ghana’s second largest urban centre. Willingness-to-pay values were elicited by means of a bidding game technique through administered questionnaire to communities in Kumasi, where potable water supply was either non-existent or very irregular. The analysis shows that Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL) could increase current tariffs by about 300% without hurting consumers, since, that would rather increase welfare considerably and facilitate sustainable allocation of potable water. A sizeable consumers’ surplus exists, which is an indication of households being susceptible to extortion by water vendors. This requires urgent government intervention to save some poor residents of Kumasi from undue exploitation as well as the return to the consumption of unwholesome water that would increase pressure on medical and Health Insurance resources.