Tag Archives: Watershed

Productivity evaluation of two contrasting watershed using okra as a test crop (Published)

Bioproductivity of two contrasting watershed management system were evaluated in pot and field experiment to ascertain the effect of management and slope on the productivity of okra. The field studies were conducted on four slope gradients of watershed in an experiment arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). The pot experiments were carried out on the soils of the two management practices (managed and unmanaged) and were arranged in a complete randomized design (CRD) with three replicates. NPK fertilizer 15:15:15 at the rate of 150kg/ha was applied as blanket treatment and okra used as test crop. The experiment was carried out on a sandy loam typic paleudult in Amawbia Anambra state southeast Nigerian. The data generated from the study were subjected to analysis of variance and significant mean differences were separated using least significant difference (LSD). The result of the study showed that natural environments of the four slopes in managed plots significantly increased the growth and yield parameters of okra than the unmanaged plots. Slope 4 (plain) of the managed watershed recorded statistically similar productivity with the unmanaged plots by virtue of their non-significant difference (P < 0.05) exhibited in most of the parameters assessed. The NPK fertilizer result indicated that the treatment boasted the productivity of both managed and unmanaged watershed ecosystem.

Keywords: Ecosystem, NPK, Okra, Watershed, depth, management system

Developing Sustainability by Using Hydrological-Water Quality Model (Published)

A framework is built, wherein hydrological/water quality model is used to measure watershed sustainability. For this framework, watershed sustainability has been defined and quantified by defining social, environmental and biodiversity indicators. By providing weightage to these indicators, a “River Basin Sustainability Index” is built. The watershed sustainability is then calculated based on the concepts of reliability, resilience and vulnerability. The framework is then applied to a case study, where, based on watershed management principles, four land use scenarios are created in GIS. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used as a hydrology/water quality model. Based on the results the land uses are ranked for sustainability and policy implications have been discussed. This results show that land use (both type and location) impact watershed sustainability. The existing land use is weak in environmental sustainability. Also, riparian zones play a critical role in watershed sustainability, although beyond certain width their contribution is not significant.

Keywords: Development, Framework, Reliability, Resilience, Sustainability, Vulnerability, Watershed

Developing Sustainability by Using Hydrological/Water Quality Model (Published)

A framework is built, wherein hydrological/water quality model is used to measure watershed sustainability. For this framework, watershed sustainability has been defined and quantified by defining social, environmental and biodiversity indicators. By providing weightage to these indicators, a “River Basin Sustainability Index” is built. The watershed sustainability is then calculated based on the concepts of reliability, resilience and vulnerability. The framework is then applied to a case study, where, based on watershed management principles, four land use scenarios are created in GIS. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used as a hydrology/water quality model. Based on the results the land uses are ranked for sustainability and policy implications have been discussed. This results show that land use (both type and location) impact watershed sustainability. The existing land use is weak in environmental sustainability. Also, riparian zones play a critical role in watershed sustainability, although beyond certain width their contribution is not significant.

Keywords: Development, Framework, Reliability, Resilience, Sustainability, Vulnerability, Watershed

The Damage of Deli River Watershed Causing Flood, Medan, Indonesia (Published)

The determination of the Deli watershed, Medan, North Sumatra, Indonesia  as a critical watershed is because the critical land area is almost half of the total Deli River area, which will theoretically affect the sustainability of the land and water resources of the Deli watershed area. The watershed is a land area bounded by a natural boundary of topography that serves to accommodate, store, and drain the water received to the nearest river system which further leads to reservoirs or lakes or seas. the damage to agricultural land is increasing. This may result from erosion, water logging, accumulation of salts in saline areas, the accumulation of elements or compounds that are toxic to plants due to the use of chemical fertilizers and chemical drugs continuously every year. Deli land destruction is dominated by biophysical factors, especially land use, slope, landform, and rainfall in the upstream Deli sub watershed.

Keywords: Deli River, Flood, Restoration, Watershed

AN ASSESSMENT OF SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF EROSION RISK IN SHAFE WATERSHED, WESTERN HILLS OF L. ABAYA, SOUTH WESTERN ETHIOPIA (Published)

The study area is among the most affected parts of Ethiopian highlands that suffered from soil degradation of varying categories, over grazing and siltation resulted from inappropriate land use practices, and historic settlement. This paper tried to quantified rate of soil loss and regionalized erosion risk areas in intensive farming mountainous environment of Shafe watershed. In so doing, Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLM) and Geographic Information Techniques (GIS) are used to map and estimate mean annual soil loss in the area. Laboratory analysis of soil revealed except in the homestead plots, total nitrogen and organic matter content of the soil was low and progressively decreasing away from the homestead. Mean annual soil loss in the study area ranged between 0.04 t and 70 t ha-1 y-1. In the area low to moderate erosion hazardous areas are found in south and central part, while high to severe erosion risk areas are concentrated in the intensively cultivated hilly northern localities. More than a third of the study watershed (32.8 %) is categorized under high to severe erosion risk area with soil loss rate ranged between 30 t and 70 t ha-1 y-1.

Keywords: Soil erosion, Universal Soil Loss Equation, Watershed, and Geographic Information System, sustainable management

An assessment of Spatial Analysis of Erosion Risk in Shafe watershed, Western Hills of L. Abaya, South Western Ethiopia (Review Completed - Accepted)

The study area is among the most affected parts of Ethiopian highlands that suffered from soil degradation of varying categories, over grazing and siltation resulted from inappropriate land use practices, and historic settlement. This paper tried to quantified rate of soil loss and regionalized erosion risk areas in intensive farming mountainous environment of Shafe watershed. In so doing, Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLM) and Geographic Information Techniques (GIS) are used to map and estimate mean annual soil loss in the area. Laboratory analysis of soil revealed except in the homestead plots, total nitrogen and organic matter content of the soil was low and progressively decreasing away from the homestead. Mean annual soil loss in the study area ranged between 0.04 t and 70 t ha-1 y-1. In the area low to moderate erosion hazardous areas are found in south and central part, while high to severe erosion risk areas are concentrated in the intensively cultivated hilly northern localities. More than a third of the study watershed (32.8 %) is categorized under high to severe erosion risk area with soil loss rate ranged between 30 t and 70 t ha-1 y-1.

Keywords: Soil erosion, Universal Soil Loss Equation, Watershed, and Geographic Information System, sustainable management