Tag Archives: Water

Analysis of the Water Absorption Properties by using Polystyrene Sanded Concrete (Published)

In this paper, an evaluation of the mechanical and hydrothermal characteristics of a polystyrene sanding lightweight concrete was studied. Mechanical properties are evaluated from a density point of view. Hydrothermal characteristics use water absorption as a measurement. In this study, 30% EPS was used to replace natural coarse aggregates and produce lightweight concrete. It is economical and practical and meets the criteria required for lightweight concrete. The bulk density of the concrete and oven dry density was obtained at 1789 KN / m 3 and 1674 kg / m 3, but the total water absorption and absorption of capillary water increased with suction time. The high water absorption rate at the start of the test has an appropriate capillary steepness coefficient in the same period. The relationship between the amount of water absorption Q per unit sample area and the capillary coefficient K is that when the amount of water absorption increases, the capillary coefficient and the rate of variation are both represented by the correlation coefficient R2. Moisture capacity is 6.9%. All laboratory tests are carried out by standard practice standards. The significance of this research is that innovative technology is adapted to modify and improve the construction industry process, thereby improving the environment that is sustainable, industrial waste management, and cheaper and more economical construction. When 30% of the coarse aggregate is exchanged, the density and absorption of water from the produced concrete is within the allowable range. Therefore, Polystyrene Sanded Concrete can be used for the manufacture of lightweight concrete that performs the required functions with this replacement level.

Keywords: Analysis, Properties, Water, absorption, polystyrene, sanded concrete

The Effects of Chlorinated Drinking Water on Pig’s Spleen DNA Treated with Zinc Sulphate and Glutathione (Published)

Background and Aim: Disinfection of surface waters is often done to destroy pathogenic organisms present in water bodies in order to render water safe for consumption, but chlorination of drinking waters has been debated as being toxic to experimental animals including man. The aim of this work was to investigate using biochemical techniques whether disinfection of drinking water by chlorination is harmful or not. Materials and Methods: The materials used were water, calcium hypochlorite, Pig’s spleen, zinc sulphate and reduced glutathione. The water sample was obtained from river Jama’are in Bauchi state, and its quality assessed by estimation of temperature, pH, total dissolved solids, total hardness, Cl, SO32-, Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ contents. The water sample was chlorinated using calcium hypochlorite (65-70% Cl2). DNA was isolated from Pig’s spleen and used as a model to test the direct effect of the chlorinated water sample on animal health. The effect was monitored spectrophotometrically. The effect of the chlorinated water sample on the biomolecule was also studied in the presence of zinc sulphate and glutathione (GSH). This was compared with that of a control experiment. Results: The results revealed that the chlorinated water sample altered the native structure of the isolated DNA. But in the presence of 0.1mM zinc sulphate and varied concentrations of GSH (0.1mM, 0.2mM and 0.3mM respectively) the chlorinated sample was found to have no noticeable effect on the isolated biomolecule; a pointer that Zn and GSH may have conjugated with chlorinated water products and detoxified them. Conclusion: It is suggested that drinking of chlorinated water is not harmful to health.

 

Keywords: Chlorination, DNA, Glutathione, Health, Pig, Water, Zinc

The Impact of Rock Crushing On the Quality of Air and Soil Within and Outside the Crushing Site (Published)

This study investigates the effect of rock crushing on Ishiagu environment in Enugu State, Nigeria. The quality of air dust and soil samples within and outside the crushing area was analyzed by taking samples of rock dust), soil and underground water. The amount of iron, zinc, copper, lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel were determined in the rock dust and soil samples collected within and outside the crushing sites. The results indicated that the concentration of metals in all samples were significant ranging from 1425-48180mg/kg in air dust sample, 120-44000mg/kg in soil samples while the metals in the underground water was seen to be decreasing as the distance from the crushing site increased .The underground water samples were observed to have high total dissolved solids (754,587 and 604) ppm respectively, total chloride and total hardness. All underground water samples were in excess of 150 mg/l total chloride with pH values between the ranges of 4.5 to 5.5 which is acidic.

Keywords: Concentration, Metals, Soil, Water, rock, rock dust

The Competitiveness of the Bottled Natural Water and Purified Drinking Water Enterprises in Vietnam: Input To Operational Plan (Published)

This study aims to explore the key factors affect the competitiveness of the bottled natural mineral water and purified drinking water enterprises in Vietnam. The researcher surveyed 340 members of board of directors at bottled natural mineral water, purified drinking water enterprises in four big cities of Vietnam. Sample was divided as follows: Ho Chi Minh City has 200 respondents, Hanoi City has 60 respondents, Danang City has 50 respondents and Cantho City has 30 respondents. The primary sources of data collected from July 2015 to November 2017 in Vietnam. Simple random sampling technique. The Data analyzed weighted mean. Responses measured through an adapted questionnaire on a 5-point Likert scale. Finally, the findings of the study have the internal factors affecting the competitiveness of the bottled natural mineral water and purified drinking water enterprises with significance level 0.05.

Keywords: Mineral, Water, enterprises and HCMUNRE., purified

Experimental Study on Effect of Concrete Made With Textile Effluent and Treated Effluent Water (Published)

This paper deals with study of possible utilization of textile water in concrete by analyzing their durability properties  The basic properties of different stages of effluent such as raw effluent, anaerobic process outlet, and tertiary treated outlet, reverse osmosis feed effluent from the textile industry were tested and the results were found to be satisfactory such that it can be used for construction purposes. By using the four stages of treated effluent, concrete specimens were casted and tested for its mechanical properties (compressive strength and tensile strength) and the results were found to be optimum for anaerobic and tertiary treated outlet Hence the study was planned to continue for durability properties (Acid attack- sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid and carbonation) of specimens using anaerobic and tertiary effluent.

Keywords: Concrete, Textile Effluent, Treated Effluent, Water

Rain Water Harvesting for Planting and Growing Trees to Green the Polytechnic Campus: A Case Study of Bolgatanga Polytechnic (Published)

The Upper East Region of Ghana is located in the Guinea Savannah agro-ecological zone with a sparse tree population. The Region suffers high unpredictable rainfall patterns imposing drought conditions with consequences on crop yield variability and poor vegetation cover. As a result, at inception of the Polytechnic, there were very limited shade trees in the Polytechnic campus where students could sit to relax or learn. Harvesting rainwater in wet periods, and utilizing the same for planting and growing trees offers a promising solution in this fragile part of Ghana.  As part of the larger effort to make the Polytechnic environment suitable for teaching and learning, rain water was harvested for planting and growing trees in the Polytechnic campus.  This paper presents a qualitative report of project activities and results. Tree planting project hinges on proper management of the established trees and shrubs. Planting trees is just one step, but its management was very crucial to the success and fruition of the project. Also critical was stakeholder consultations on project goals and aims which enabled a sense of ownership for the project. Overall, after ten years of the project, there has been a significant improvement in the tree and shrub cover in the Polytechnic campus. It is concluded that adding trees to schools is a great way to make campuses more welcoming, provide shade for recreational purposes, and as well foster environmental stewardship. The Government should as part of project procurement procedures for schools legislate that all new buildings should incorporate tree planting from inception. The care of the trees can then be the responsibility of school management after the buildings have been completed and handed over

Keywords: Growing, Harvesting, Rain, Tree Planting, Water

The Thermal Behavior of the Coal-Water- Fuel (CWF) (Published)

Large deposits of coal in the world enable to utilize in composite fuel with water and diesel, which help reducing the demand of petroleum fuels. This composite used in different thermal machines, especially in plant combustion engines with no change in the fuel combustion technology. A carbon powder containing small molecules dissolved in water in coal-water- fuel (CWF) -is good fuel for applying in large capacity engines in electrical plants. This paper gives necessary information about obtaining of water-coal emulsion including its physical properties and focuses on the action of sea water vapor in CWF. The experimental tests indicate a higher thermal efficiency of engine fueled by water–coal-fuel emulsion than engine fueled by black oil lonely. The increased emission of CO2 or NOx can be reduced in the plants simply by chemical reduction. The paper explains the appropriate ratios leading to effective combustion process. This paper is a certain challenge for finding a new fuel sources as a competition for crude oil. The thermal behavior of different ratios of composite fuel were measured in thermo-gravimetric station under normal atmosphere pressure, to determine the appropriate ratio of CWF. The results show that the addition of 30% sea water as vapor in CWF decrease NOx and gives high thermal efficient.

Keywords: CWF, Carbamide., Coal, Fuel, SLBS, Sea Water, Vapor, Water

Corrosion Inhibitive Effects of Coconut (Cocos Nucifera Linn) Water For Mild Steel in Acidic Medium (Published)

The corrosion inhibitive effect of coconut water as an eco-friendly inhibitor for the corrosion control of mild steel in 0.5 Molar solution of H2SO4 acid have been investigated using the weight loss method which is considered more informative than other laboratory techniques. The studies were carried out using 30-110ml of the coconut water. The test coupons were totally immersed in the corroding medium containing various concentration of the inhibitor at the time intervals of 24-192 hours. The results obtained showed that the concentration of the inhibitor in the corrodent impacted differently on the test coupons. The corrosion rate was found to decrease while the inhibitor efficiency increases as the inhibitor concentration was increased. The plateau of maximum inhibition efficiency of 89.07% and 81.57% was obtained at the concentration of 90ml and 110ml for 24hours and 48hours immersion time respectively. The study showed that coconut water possesses inhibiting properties for reducing the corrosion of mild steel in the acidic medium.

Keywords: Coconut, Cocos Nucifera Linn, Corrosion, Inhibitor, Water

The Effects of Chlorinated Drinking Water on Pig’s Spleen DNA Treated with Zinc Sulphate and Glutathione (Published)

Background and Aim: Disinfection of surface waters is often done to destroy pathogenic organisms present in water bodies in order to render water safe for consumption. But chlorination of drinking waters has been debated as being toxic to experimental animals including man. The aim of this work was to investigate using biochemical techniques whether disinfection of drinking water by chlorination is harmful or not. Materials and Methods: The materials used were water, calcium hypochlorite, Pig’s spleen, zinc sulphate and reduced glutathione. The water sample was obtained from river Jama’are in Bauchi state, and its quality assessed by estimation of temperature, pH, total dissolved solids, total hardness, Cl-, SO32-, Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ contents. The water sample was chlorinated using calcium hypochlorite (65-70% Cl2). DNA was isolated from Pig’s spleen and used as a model to test the direct effect of the chlorinated water sample on animal health. The effect was monitored spectrophotometrically. The effect of the chlorinated water sample on the biomolecule was also studied in the presence of zinc sulphate and glutathione (GSH). This was compared with that of a control experiment. Results: The results revealed that the chlorinated water sample altered the native structure of the isolated DNA. But in the presence of 0.1mM zinc sulphate and varied concentrations of GSH (0.1mM, 0.2mM and 0.3mM respectively) the chlorinated sample was found to have no noticeable effect on the isolated biomolecule; a pointer that Zn and GSH may have conjugated with chlorinated water products and detoxified them. Conclusion: It is suggested that drinking of chlorinated water is not harmful to health.

Keywords: Chlorination, DNA, Glutathione, Health, Pig, Water, Zinc

THE PLACE OF WATER IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: READINGS FROM GREG MABAJIORGU’S WRITINGS (Published)

Argument on the eroding environmental degradation by modern industrial society has been rife in most critical works of the modern period. Man’s quest for civilization and its accompanied industrialization are often seen as reasons for destruction of natural environment. Despite the facts that water covers about seventy percent of the earth surface, availability and accessibility of water has remained a great challenge to human development. Acute water shortage for human consumption is a course for worry in the face of alarming industrial pollution. Little wonders that ecocritics and ecodramatics are upset by degenerating human environment. Greg Mbajiorgu is one of them. He has written extensively on water as important abotic resource. In his collection of poems title Water testament (2008) and a dramatic text,Wota na Wota (2006), he explored various themes on the usefulness of water to man. He asserts that search for drinkable water in most local communities can create anarchy as a result of its scarcity. This research explores these themes and attributes of water as illustrated in the poems and the drama. The basic assumption of this research is that water is a necessity for sustenance of life and a component of natural resources. Consequently, great effort must be geared towards its preservation.

Keywords: Greg Mabajiorgu’s Writings, Sustainable Development, Water

Sachet Water Hawking and Enviromental Effects in Ikeja, Lagos (Published)

The study examines the environmental effects posed by sachet water hawkers and its associated problems in Ikeja, Lagos. The specific objectives are: to examine the socio-economic characteristics of sachet water hawkers, their mode of operation, methods of water sachet disposal, management practice and associated problems. The study utilizes both primary and secondary data. Primary data were obtained through questionnaire administration and direct observation in the study area. 150 questionnaires were administered purposively to 150 sachet water hawkers while the secondary sources were obtained from review of related literature on the subject matter. Data collected were analysed through descriptive statistics. Results revealed that 41% of the hawkers engaged in activity due to unemployment. Also, water sachet materials constitute 42% of the waste generation problems in the area which is a major environmental problem. The study therefore suggested that government should enact laws to effect easy collection of tax from the hawkers as their contribution towards economic growth and development. Effective solid waste management practices should be encouraged coupled with public enlightment on the disposal methods. Government should make adequate provision for waste disposal facilities and training of more sanitary agents in the area.

Keywords: Economic, Hawking, Waste and Management, Water