Status of Discharged Abattoir Effluent and Its Effects on the Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Orogodo River, Delta State, Nigeria (Published)
The discharge of untreated wastewater into waterbodies results in water quality deterioration of the receiving waters. This study assesses the impact of abattoir wastewater discharge on the water quality of Orogodo River in Nigeria. Effluent discharges and water samples were collected from river at six points over a 6-month period. Physicochemical analyses were conducted using standard methods. The pH was within a fixed band of 5.56 – 8.04. The downstream biochemical oxygen demand of the receiving river water increased significantly to 75% in July and up to 192% in December. Suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen and total phosphorus followed a similar trend. Dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, also increased appreciably. The downstream levels of these parameters were higher than their corresponding upstream values, indicating that the discharge of the abattoir wastewater into the river has negatively impacted the river water. The dilution of the waste in the river water was not enough to reduce them to acceptable levels. This study demonstrates that abattoir wastewater impacts Orogodo River water negatively. The abattoir effluent did not meet the National standard for effluent discharge into the environment leading to cross pollution of the receiving water based on the parameters investigated. This therefore, calls for the need to put an effective wastewater treatment and monitoring system in place to enforce existing legislations to curb water pollution and to safeguard both the environment and human health.
A classification algorithm is used to assign predefined classes to test instances for evaluation) or future instances to an application). This study presents a Classification model using decision tree for the purpose of analyzing water quality data from different counties in Kenya. The water quality is very important in ensuring citizens get to drink clean water. Application of decision tree as a data mining method to predict clean water based on the water quality parameters can ease the work of the laboratory technologist by predicting which water samples should proceed to the next step of analysis. The secondary data from Kenya Water institute was used for creation of this model. The data model was implemented in WEKA software. Classification using decision tree was applied to classify /predict the clean and not clean water. The analysis of water Alkalinity,pH level and conductivity can play a major role in assessing water quality. Five decision tree classifiers which are J48, LMT, Random forest, Hoeffding tree and Decision Stump were used to build the model and the accuracy compared. J48 decision tree had the highest accuracy of 94% with Decision Stump having the lowest accuracy of 83%.
Physicochemical and Microbiological Characteristics of Water Samples from the Borgu Sector of Kainji Lake National Park, Nigeria (Published)
The quality of water resources in any ecosystem provides significant information about the available resources for supporting life in such ecosystem. The study therefore assessed the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of water samples from the Borgu Sector of Kainji Lake National Park, Nigeria. The study was carried out at Borgu sector of KLNP purposively selected based on the availability of perennial waterholes. Water samples were collected from four waterholes for two seasons (dry and wet). Water samples were subjected to physicochemical [temperature, pH, total dissolved solid, electrical conductivity, total suspended solids, dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate, chloride, phosphate, sulphate, biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand (COD)] and microbiological (total coliform and fungal counts) analyses using standard methods. Data collected were subjected to descriptive statistics and T-test at α0.05 and compared with WHO permissible limits. The result showed that DO and COD levels of all the water samples were above the WHO guideline while there were significant seasonal variation in the values of temperature (t=4.93), EC (t=2.46), TDS (t=2.33), nitrate (t=3.66), chloride (t=4.91) and COD (t=4.23) in the waters sampled across the seasons of sampling. Salmonella / Shigella and Staphylococcus aureus were observed to be absent while the total coliform and fungi counts were observed to be higher than the WHO permissible limit for drinking water. The presence of thermo-tolerant such as Klebsiella sp and Enterobacter sp observed in the study may be an indication of faecal contamination. Periodical monitoring of the river water quality in Kainji Lake National Park is required to protect drinking water resources, encourage recreational activities and provide a good enabling environment for wildlife.
Surface Water Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea by New Damietta Harbor, Nile Delta, Egypt (Published)
The Damietta Harbor is situated near the eastern branch of the River Nile estuary, 250 km east of Alexandria. Marine eutrophication is mainly an inshore problem that affects lagoons, harbors, estuaries and coastal areas adjacent to river mouths. Although the main body of the Mediterranean Sea as a whole is not yet seriously threatened by eutrophication, areas of pronounced eutrophication are expanding in the Mediterranean. The main objective of the study is to characterize water, soil and sediment that will be dredged to determine their suitability for placement in either upland, an offshore disposal site, or at an existing beach for re-nourishment, and to observe the effect of the harbor on surface water pollution of the Mediterranean Sea. The dredging operations in Damietta Port sediment, soil and water investigations were conducted to understand the possible disposal or re-use considerations. The following samples were investigated:
- Offshore stations representing existing, proposed and reference stations,
- Sediment cores within the port and approach channel,
- Sediment grabs within the port and approach channel, and
- Soil borings from terminal basin.
Also, the water quality of different basins inside the harbor and in the marine waters at the mouth of the harbor was investigated. Water samples were analyzed for parameters indicating the chemical and biological quality of the harbor environment. In general, the water, soil, and sediment quality in the study area were within the permissible levels for physical-chemical parameters of marine water, although some metals were considerably higher than the background levels. In total, the off shore qualities were within the limits in all locations that are not hazardous to the Mediterranean Sea environment.
Modelling the Impact of Spilled Oil at Nigeria Liquefied Natural Gas (NLNG) Jetty on Surface Water Quality (Published)
This study was to model the impact of oily wastes discharge and other contaminants to the river at Nigeria Liquefied Natural Gas (NLNG) Base Jetty. The methodology of the study include review of relevant literatures, field measurement of hydraulic properties and laboratory analysis of physico-chemical parameters of the stream from eight (8) sampling stations covering the dry and rainy seasons. The results obtained from the analysis showed that the DO varied from 2.51mg/l to 4.22mg/l and BOD5 varied from 4.31mg/l to 12.42mg/l along the stream. The re-aeration coefficient Kr of the stream varied from 0.018d-1 to 0.340d-1. The model developed from the values of Kr observed and Kr predicted showed strong correlation with a coefficient of correlation of 0.93. The observed Kr was compared with predicted Kr, Gualtieri, Churchill, Agunwamba, O’Connor and Dobbins, and Ugbebor which gave standard errors of 0.0404, 0.1290, 0.1860, 0.0451, 0.1868 and 3.1118 respectively.. This showed that the study Kr model performed better than the other Kr models. The self-purification factor of the study river gave 0.36, indicating that the stream is sluggish and polluted. The study recommended close monitoring of discharges and activities at Nigeria Liquefied Natural Gas (NLNG) Base Jetty.
A Visibility Study for Choosing the Dug Wells Alternative versus Deep Wells for Water Supply (Published)
While access to water remains an essential issue in arid and semi-arid regions, aquifers have the potential to help millions of people out of a reliable source of water. Boreholes are increasingly advocated as a safe and cost-effective substitute to mechanized drilling, as well as to traditional excavation methods. The main target of the present study is to evaluate and locate the possibilities of water resources occurrence in the proposed area, indicate whether to use a deep well or a shallow dug well. The study consists of three steps; the first step was drilling the dug well after data collection and allocates the suitable well location. The second step included a pumping test for the productive well lies at Nabq- Sharm El-Sheikh – South Sinai with a depth of 114 meters which was done. The third step included a water quality monitoring for the well, as the samples was taken each 12 hours for 3 days from the existing well. It is concluded that for the presented model of using large diameter wells instead of small diameter wells has shown insignificant improvement in the well yield in the study area. For the well under consideration, it is recommended to operate this well for a pumping rate of 50 m3/hr (for 24 hours per day) to maintain the long-term drawdown at 3 meters in addition to the well losses which is less than 0.5 meter.
Water pollution has been a major environmental problem globally. This study investigated the effects of abattoir waste on the water quality of Amilimocha River in Asaba, Delta State, Nigeria. Water samples were collected from three sampling locations upstream L1, point of discharge L2, downstream L3, and a control sample L4. Samples were immediately taken to the laboratory for standard analysis. Salinity varied from (0.01 – 0.06%), conductivity (56.70 – 85.10µs/cm), DO (7.80- 8.55mg/L), BOD (3.00 – 6.21mg/L), COD (8.95 – 15.5mg/L), TDS (20.00 – 53.00mg/L), turbidity ( 23.00 – 41.50 NTU), NO3 (0.16 – 0.35mg/L), P042- ( 0.02 – 0.6mg/L), temperature ( 26.00 – 29.10oC), pH ( 6.50 – 8.20) and coliform bacteria counts (10.00 – 50.00 cfu/100ml). There was significant heterogeneity in mean variance of the water quality parameters across the sampling locations [F(31.09)>Fcrit(3.94)] at P<0.05. A further structure detection group means revealed that all the parameters contributed to the observed heterogeneity. Mean concentration of DO and BOD (8.22 0.73 and 5.10 0.37mg/L) respectively exceeded the World Health Organization 6.80 and 4.0mg/L maximum permissible limits for aquatic life. Abattoir wastes should be properly treated before disposal and freshwater systems should not serve as recipients of untreated abattoir waste.
This study evaluates the physico-chemical properties of groundwater in Ogbia, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Standard field and laboratory methods were followed. The results of the study revealed that the pH value ranges from 6.4 to 7.1 with an average of 6.86 indicating a slightly acidic condition. The concentration level of iron in the study area ranges from 0.1mg/l to 4.2mg/l with a mean value of 1.89mg/l. 13.3% of iron in sampled locations satisfy the World Health Organization (WHO) and Nigerian Standards for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ) highest desirable level of 0.3mg/l. The concentration of calcium ranges between 3.0mg/l to 13.1mg/l, with a mean value of 8.83mg/l, while magnesium concentration was from 1.8mg/l to 9.0mg/l, with a mean value of 5.6mg/l. The concentration level of phosphate in the study area ranges from 0.02mg/l to 0.19mg/l, with a mean value of 0.12mg/l. Chloride concentration level in the sampled locations was between 10mg/l to 39mg/l, with a mean of value of 23.8mg/l, all the values recorded were within the permissible WHO and NSDWQ standard of 250mg/l. The low concentration level of chloride in the area indicates that there is no salt water intrusion, hence all the locations have freshwater. The cations were in order of abundance as Na+ > Ca 2+ > Mg 2+ > Fe 2+ > Mn 2+, while anions were in the order of abundance as SO4 > Cl > NO3 > F > NH3 > PO4. Piper Trilinear Diagram for the study area showed that there were mixtures of two types of water with variable concentrations of major ions. These were sodium-chloride type and sodium- sulphate type of water, an indication that the water was from a marine source. Based on the result from this study, there is the need for regular ground water quality monitoring and effective management strategies in the area.
Effects of salinity and hardness on the growth of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Northern Punjab region of Pakistan. (Published)
The tolerance of salinity and hardness was checked on the growth and survival of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in National Agriculture Research Council (NARC) Islamabad. Fry of the Tilapia measuring between 2.5cm to 2.9cm in total length and weighing between 0.435g to 0.603g (Body Weight BW) were used for the salinity and hardness treatment. Different levels of salinity from 0-15ppt were developed for the three months. 100 % survival rate was observed in 0-7.5ppt while in 12.5ppt and 15ppt all the fish died. Salinities between 0-10ppt were endured by the fish however the most appropriate salinity level was 5ppt on which maximum growth was recorded. For hardness treatment different concentrations of 350mg/lit, 450mg/lit, 550mg/lit and 650mg/lit of CaCl2 were used. No mortality was observed in this case and the most preferred concentration on which the fish showed maximum growth was 550 mg/lit.
Study on the Chemical and Biological Status of Malwatu Oya Basin, Anuradhapura in Sri Lanka. (Published)
Water pollution is a serious problem to the entire world. It threatens the health and wellbeing of humans, plants, and animals. With the advancement of communications and trade due to industrialization, accidental and purposive waste dumping, and uncontrolled use of water sources have contributed to the problem of water pollution in both surface water and the ground water. This study was mainly concerned with the evaluation of water quality of Malwathu Oya and its four basin tanks in the dry zone of Sri Lanka namely Nuwara wewa, Tissa wewa, Nachchaduwa wewa and Mahakanadarawe wewa in the Anuradhapura district using some selected water quality parameters. Malwathu Oya has been using as a source of drinking water for Anuradhapura. Eutrophication through the process of nutrient enrichment of stagnant waters due to urbanization & chemical added agricultural practices has been considered as the significant cause for water pollution in these areas. They cause algal blooms and release of toxic substances from species like cyanobacteria. Low Secchi Depth value and high chlorophyll a concentration indicate eutrophic nature of the Nuwarawewa and Tissawewa Lakes in dry periods. Malwathu oya too showed reasonably high Chlorophyll content during the same period. High nutrient loading was observed through the growth of phytoplankton species. Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii was the most dominant species recorded in the present study and Microcystis aeruginosa, Microcystis incerta, Pediastrum duplex. Merismo pediatenuissima, Melosira granulate and Diatomaelongata were also recorded from Nuwarawewa and Tissawewa during the study period. With respect to Physical and chemical parameters, very high turbidity, high nitrogen compounds ( Ammoinia, Nitrate, Nitrite), phosphate, total suspended solids, dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand were recorded in Nuwarawewa and Tissawewa due to the influence of human activities such as recreational , dumping wastes and agricultural practices. However data indicate that Nachchaduwa and Mahakandarawa lakes are well protected from above threats. At the same time Malwathuoya stream also showed the same kind of pollution pattern causing more critical situations for water treatment and water quality aspects. Therefore, an effective Lake Management and Lake monitoring programmes with integrated catchment management have to be adopted and it is a prior necessity in planning of the management practices of the catchments to get first hand information through this kind of research on these lakes.