Tag Archives: Waste Management

Scavenging Birds on Solid Waste Dumps: A Significant Health-threat to City Inhabitants in Limbe, Southwest Region, Cameroon (Published)

Over the past decade, the need for better waste management has become more obvious with the increase in human population growth. Feeding is an essential activity of bird’s life which is indispensable for its survival, however, the demands of food acquisition impose significant challenges to both physiology and behavior of birds. This survey was aimed at examining the activity of wild birds on waste dumps in Limbe city. The data collection process started in the month of March and ended in July. The research area was divided into four zones, north, south, east, and western zone. Four solid-dumps were randomly selected from each zone and were visited twice a week for research data collection. On the dumps, observations were done from 6:00am – 6:00pm, and the activities of all the bird species observed were recorded during the period. The results of this study has shown a significant association between bird species, activity, dump-weight, and the waste proximity to human residence, X2 = 24.205 df=14, P=0.043, X2 =. 43.999 df=35, p<0.05, and r = 0.253, P=0.000 respectively. Also, the study showed that the activity profile of Passer griseus (27%) and Ploceus cucullatus (49%) were higher as compared to Ploceus luteolus (4%), Lanius collaries (5%), Corvus albus 8%), Bubulcus ibis (5%), and Pycnonotus barbatus (2%) respectively. Additionally, the birds’ activity recorded a weak association on dump-weight and dump distance to human homes, X2 = 8.343 df=10, P<0.05, and X2 = 4.851 df=8, P<0.05 respectively. The undulating landscape in Limbe municipality showed a dependency on dump-weight and dump distance from homes, X2 = 128.020 df=10, P=0.000, and r = 0.226, P=0.001 respectively. Also, the dumps with a home-proximity of 1m-20m were the most recorded in flat landscape areas, and most of the waste on these dumps were estimated to have a weight range of 1kg-200kgs (48%), 201kg-400kgs (27%), 401kg-600kgs (16%), and 601kg-800kgs (9%) respectively. Poor waste disposal system has been the main reason behind flood hazards in this sea-shore city, a phenomenon that has witnessed the destruction of both human lives and properties in the past. The city needs a modern waste management system to prevent or reduce the population of birds visiting the dump-sites which would often serve as vectors in cycling pathogens to humans from these dumps. 

Keywords: Waste Management, flood hazards, pathogens, waste dumps, wild birds

Effect of Environmental Cost on Performances of Quoted Firms in Sub-Saharan Africa, 2007-2016 (Published)

The study examined the effect of environmental costs on performances of quoted firms in Sub Saharan Africa. The study adopted longitudinal/panel ex-post facto research design and random sampling technique while quantitative secondary data covering 2007 to 2016 were obtained for sixty-four extractive and industrial firms quoted in the Stock Exchanges of four Sub-Sahara African countries namely South Africa, Nigeria, Ghana and Tanzania. The models for the study were estimated using Ordinary least square regression (OLS) built on panel data analysis. In the regional level analysis as well as in South Africa and Nigeria specific country analyses, the study revealed that environmental costs represented by employee health and safety, waste management and community development costs have no significant effect on return on capital employed, earnings per share and return on equity. The study showed that in Ghana, the predictor variables demonstrated significant effect on return on capital employed and return on equity while only waste management cost has significant effect on return on capital employed and return on equity in Tanzania. The implication of the preponderance of the findings, save for the aforementioned exceptions in Ghana and Tanzania,  is that quoted firms in the region are yet to adequately indulge in environmental responsibility or their environmental engagements are not adequately captured and disclosed to the extent that can cause significant swings in the measures of firm performance. The implication of the exceptions found in Ghana and Tanzania is that of   comparative improvement in environmental responsibilities, compliances and disclosures by quoted firms in the two countries. The study recommended among other things that firms in Sub Saharan Africa should give greater attention to environmental responsibility, cost recognition, classification and disclosures in the annual, integrated and sustainability reports.

Keywords: Earnings per share, Performance, Return on Equity, Waste Management, capital employed, community development costs, employee health and safety, environmental costs

Comparative Assessment of Biodiesel Produced from Microalgae, Used Vegetable Oil and Fossils (Published)

Biodiesel was produced from two sources; microalgae oil and used vegetable oil and compared with conventional fossil diesel. The microalgae were collected from an open pond where they constitute nuisance while the used vegetable oil was gotten from roadside fried food sellers as waste products. Trans-esterification was carried out to give the corresponding mono alkyl ester (biodiesel).  Quality assessment of the biodiesel produced was carried out via determination of chemical characteristics; Density, viscosity, flash point, pour point and acid value. The density of the biodiesel from the two sources were 0.882 kg. L-1 and 0.870 kg. L-1 respectively and higher than the conventional diesel. Flash points of the biodiesel produced from microalgae (1650C) and used vegetable oil (1810C) were significantly higher than the conventional diesel.  Pour points of the biodiesel produced from microalgae oil and used vegetable oil were -100C and -150C respectively while viscosity values at 350C were 5.2 and 4.5 respectively. The acid value of the biodiesel produced from the microalgae oil (0.394) and the used vegetable oil (0.290) were lower than that of the conventional diesel fuel (0.5).  The chemical characteristics of the biodiesel produced were in line with standard specifications.  The biodiesel produced when compared with the conventional diesel fuel based on their different parameters may be fit and greener replacement for fossil diesel fuels, which are nonrenewable and not biodegradable.

Keywords: Biodiesel, Microalgae, Renewable Energy, Waste Management, used vegetable oil

Statistical Survey of Waste Management in Osun State, Nigeria: Binary Logistics Approach. (Published)

This research work is in line with the strategic priorities of environment management agencies, and has the potentials to assist the organization in their effort to ensure the efficient management of solid and liquid waste in the City of Osogbo.  With a view of providing empirical data information with respect to the causative factors responsible for the visible environmental pollution by wastes and materials from food outlets. Data was gathered from a representative sample of 332 food outlets on socio-economics demographic, environmental, sanitary and health related variables that are related to waste analysis was performed using statistical procedures such as frequency tables, pearson’s chi-square tests of association and binary logistic regression analysis in the statistical package STATA version 10. Odds rations estimated from logistic regression analysis were used for identifying key factors that affect efficiency in the proper disposal of waste. Results obtained showed that 18% of the 332 food outlets in the study were generally inefficient in waste disposal. Based on odds rations estimated from binary logistic regression analysis, wrong perception (a factor of 10.88), failure to provide trash cans to customers (a factor of 3.15), the operation of food outlets by non-owners of managers (a factor of 2.33), factors that affect the proper management of waste at the 332 food outlets in the study.

Keywords: Binary Logistic Regression, Osun State, Waste Management, Waste.

Statistical Survey of Waste Management in Osun State, Nigeria: Binary Logistics Approach (Published)

This research work is in line with the strategic priorities of environment management agencies, and has the potentials to assist the organization in their effort to ensure the efficient management of solid and liquid waste in the City of Osogbo.  With a view of providing empirical data information with respect to the causative factors responsible for the visible environmental pollution by wastes and materials from food outlets. Data was gathered from a representative sample of 332 food outlets on socio-economics demographic, environmental, sanitary and health related variables that are related to waste analysis was performed using statistical procedures such as frequency tables, pearson’s chi-square tests of association and binary logistic regression analysis in the statistical package STATA version 10. Odds rations estimated from logistic regression analysis were used for identifying key factors that affect efficiency in the proper disposal of waste. Results obtained showed that 18% of the 332 food outlets in the study were generally inefficient in waste disposal. Based on odds rations estimated from binary logistic regression analysis, wrong perception (a factor of 10.88), failure to provide trash cans to customers (a factor of 3.15), the operation of food outlets by non-owners of managers (a factor of 2.33), factors that affect the proper management of waste at the 332 food outlets in the study.

Keywords: Binary Logistic Regression, Osun State, Waste Management, Waste.

An Analysis of Municipal Solid Waste in Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria, West Africa (Published)

Solid waste disposal and management is both an urban and rural challenge; however, this paper focused on municipal solid waste from the perspective of household waste management system in Lafia, Nasarawa State. Questionnaires were randomly distributed to households in eight communities in Lafia metropolis. The quantity and composition of waste generated was determined. The average waste generation per household was found to be 0.65kg/capita/day. The composition shows that 67.6% was made up of biodegradable material while 32.4% were recyclable materials. Lack of adequate waste collection system and proximity to dumpsites were attributed to causing dumping by residents in drains/gutters. Open burning is the major method of treatment discovered by the study. Finally, the paper suggested sustainable environmental education program by the state government to the populace and private sector participation in the disposal and management of solid waste.

Keywords: Household Waste, Solid Waste, Waste Disposal, Waste Management

An Analysis of Municipal Solid Waste in Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria, West Africa (Published)

Solid waste disposal and management is both an urban and rural challenge; however this paper focused on municipal solid waste from the perspective of household waste management system in Lafia, Nasarawa State. Questionnaires were randomly distributed to households in eight communities in Lafia metropolis. The quantity and composition of waste generated was determined. The average waste generation per household was found to be 0.65kg/capita/day. The composition shows that 67.6% was made up of biodegradable material while 32.4% were recyclable materials. Lack of adequate waste collection system and proximity to dumpsites were attributed to causing dumping by residents in drains/gutters. Open burning is the major method of treatment discovered by the study. Finally the paper suggested sustainable environmental education program by the state government to the populace and private sector participation in the disposal and management of solid waste.

Keywords: Household Waste, Solid Waste, Waste Disposal, Waste Management

Perceived Effect of Waste Generation on the Climate among Rural Households in Oyo State, Nigeria (Published)

This study examined the perceived effect of waste generation on climate change among rural households in Oyo state, Nigeria.  Two local government areas were randomly selected from the three senatorial districts in Oyo state from which five villages each were randomly selected. A total of 15 households across the selected villages were randomly selected to give a total sample size of 150 respondents. Data were collected through the use of interview schedule and analyzed using frequencies and percentages to present the descriptive analysis, while Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Chi- Square were used for inferential analysis. The findings of the study revealed that the average age of the respondents in the study area was  37 years, as majority (75.0%) were married  and had no formal education (63.2%).  Majority (90.0%) were farmers, had small farm size (86.1%) of range 1-5 acres. Kitchen waste (94.7%), crop waste (88.8%) and animal waste (65.3%) were the major waste generated within the households in the study area. Most (92.0%) of the respondents disposed their wastes making use of sacks (83.3%) 62.0% and 74.7% dispose their waste into drainage channels (62.0%) and flowing stream (74.7%) respectively. Few (14.7%) obtained information on waste management practices through the radio. Majority (78.2%) had low knowledge level on waste management practice and wrong perception (79.2%) of the effects of waste generation to climate change. Level of education (2 = 9.273, sources of information on waste management practices (r = 0.325) and knowledge on waste management practices (r = 0.276) have influence on the perceived effect of waste generation to climate change. There is the need to create awareness on the environmental effect of waste and inappropriate waste management practices among rural households.

Keywords: Climate Change, Knowledge on Waste Management, Perceived Effect of Waste, Waste Generation, Waste Management, Waste.

Perceived Effect of Waste Generation on the Climate among Rural Households in Oyo State, Nigeria (Published)

This study examined the perceived effect of waste generation on climate change among rural households in Oyo state, Nigeria. Two local government areas were randomly selected from the three senatorial districts in Oyo state from which five villages each were randomly selected. A total of 15 households across the selected villages were randomly selected to give a total sample size of 150 respondents. Data were collected through the use of interview schedule and analyzed using frequencies and percentages to present the descriptive analysis, while Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Chi- Square were used for inferential analysis. The findings of the study revealed that the average age of the respondents in the study area was 37 years, as majority (75.0%) were married and had no formal education (63.2%). Majority (90.0%) were farmers, had small farm size (86.1%) of range 1-5 acres. Kitchen waste (94.7%), crop waste (88.8%) and animal waste (65.3%) were the major waste generated within the households in the study area. Most (92.0%) of the respondents disposed their wastes making use of sacks (83.3%) 62.0% and 74.7% dispose their waste into drainage channels (62.0%) and flowing stream (74.7%) respectively. Few (14.7%) obtained information on waste management practices through the radio. Majority (78.2%) had low knowledge level on waste management practice and wrong perception (79.2%) of the effects of waste generation to climate change. Level of education (ᵪ2 = 9.273, sources of information on waste management practices (r = 0.325) and knowledge on waste management practices (r = 0.276) have influence on the perceived effect of waste generation to climate change. There is the need to create awareness on the environmental effect of waste and inappropriate waste management practices among rural households.

Keywords: Climate Change, Knowledge on Waste Management, Perceived Effect of Waste, Waste Generation, Waste Management, Waste.

GREEN PROCUREMENT STRATEGIES AS DETERMINANTS OF FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE: EVIDENCE FROM SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN UASIN-GISHU COUNTY, KENYA (Published)

Owing to strong influence on economic and social issues, environmental impact attributed by SMEs activities is significant, not only for their magnitude but also in diversity. However SMEs are often unaware of their environmental impact and lack the resources to implement environmental initiatives and since their environmental footprints are small and localized they easily go unnoticed. Nevertheless the cumulative environmental impacts of countless SMEs constitute major environmental challenges to both regulators and stakeholders. Environmental issues is now considered strategic and there has been debate all over the world concerning environmental issues (Green procurement).Many SMEs are reluctant to adopt green procurement strategies until they find financial benefit for themselves. Thus the general objective of the study was to determine if green procurement strategies had an effect on SMEs financial performance. The specific objectives were to determine the extent to which recycling of waste, use of non pollutants, waste management and use of energy saving products determined SMEs financial performance in Eldoret town, Kenya. The study area was Eldoret town, Kenya and the research design adopted was explanatory research design (bivariate analysis) because it compares two variables, the dependent variable being financial performance and independent variable is green procurement strategy. The research used stratified and simple random sampling and Hotels, restaurants, bars and supermarkets were the study units. There are more than 8175 SMEs in Eldoret town and the researcher used stratified sampling and targeted 80 respondents in supermarkets and 197 respondents in hotels/restaurant/bars. Data collection instruments used was five point likert scale questionnaire and structured interview. Data analysis used was descriptive statistics, explanatory factor analysis, Pearson Moment correlation and regression model analysis. Data was presented using tables, figures and in prose form. The study showed that there is a relationship between green procurement strategies adopted by SMEs on their financial performance and it found that most SME’s in Eldoret have an understanding of what green products are, recycling of wastes, what pollution is and what needs to be done to curb pollution and lastly about waste management and the need to use energy saving products to reduce on the cost of energy. From multiple regression tests the study findings; r=0.509 and r2=0.740, which shows that 74% of the growth of financial performance can be explained by the adoption of green procurement. The findings show that the null hypotheses were rejected in each hypothesis and thus there was a relationship. The study recommends that an awareness programme should be organized in schools, offices, through multimedia houses to educate the masses on the need to recycle waste and thus save on their costs and as a way to generate income. The study further recommends that SMEs require greater access to financial services and investment capital. The study will be useful to various stakeholders such as the government, policy makers and purchasing managers who will benefit on knowing that green procurement strategy is an important aspect in any organizations and it can impact environmental and financial performance of SMEs as well as all organizations.

Keywords: Energy saving products, Financial Performance, Non-Pollutants, Recycling of Waste, SMEs, Waste Management

AN EVALUATION OF THE OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY OF A PUBLIC AGENCY: A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU STATE WASTE MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY (ESWAMA) IN ENUGU CITY, NIGERIA (Published)

Enugu State Waste Management Authority (ESWAMA) is a public agency established in 2004 with the mandate for waste management in the urban areas in Enugu State including Enugu City. After 9 years of existence, it becomes necessary to evaluate its operational efficiency for the purpose of identifying its worth, strength and challenges. For this evaluation, 79 households served as respondents and were purposively selected from the three Local government areas that make up Enugu City. The questionnaire instrument used for data collection contained the 18 statutory functions of ESWAMA and respondents were requested to rate each function as follows; very good (VG), Good (G), Fair (F), Poor (P) and Unknown (U) depending on their perception. Relative Satisfaction Indices (RSIs) were computed for the 79 respondents across the 18 functions in keeping with Likert weighting scale. The results were combined with the outcome of the structured interviews and reasons adduced by the respondents. In accordance with Likert scale, 3 classes of efficiency were established for all the 18 functions. Result showed that ESWAMA scored pass mark in only 22.2% of its functions, and fair mark in another 22.2% and poor grade in 55. 6% of its functions. ESWAMA operational efficiency is therefore found to be very poor, partial and narrow in scope in relation to its entire statutory functions. Responsive leadership with good training, skill and knowledge in environmental sciences and management is recommended to improve its operational level of efficiency.

Keywords: ESWAMA, Evaluation, Operational Efficiency, Statutory Function., Waste Management