Scavenging Birds on Solid Waste Dumps: A Significant Health-threat to City Inhabitants in Limbe, Southwest Region, Cameroon (Published)
Over the past decade, the need for better waste management has become more obvious with the increase in human population growth. Feeding is an essential activity of bird’s life which is indispensable for its survival, however, the demands of food acquisition impose significant challenges to both physiology and behavior of birds. This survey was aimed at examining the activity of wild birds on waste dumps in Limbe city. The data collection process started in the month of March and ended in July. The research area was divided into four zones, north, south, east, and western zone. Four solid-dumps were randomly selected from each zone and were visited twice a week for research data collection. On the dumps, observations were done from 6:00am – 6:00pm, and the activities of all the bird species observed were recorded during the period. The results of this study has shown a significant association between bird species, activity, dump-weight, and the waste proximity to human residence, X2 = 24.205 df=14, P=0.043, X2 =. 43.999 df=35, p<0.05, and r = 0.253, P=0.000 respectively. Also, the study showed that the activity profile of Passer griseus (27%) and Ploceus cucullatus (49%) were higher as compared to Ploceus luteolus (4%), Lanius collaries (5%), Corvus albus 8%), Bubulcus ibis (5%), and Pycnonotus barbatus (2%) respectively. Additionally, the birds’ activity recorded a weak association on dump-weight and dump distance to human homes, X2 = 8.343 df=10, P<0.05, and X2 = 4.851 df=8, P<0.05 respectively. The undulating landscape in Limbe municipality showed a dependency on dump-weight and dump distance from homes, X2 = 128.020 df=10, P=0.000, and r = 0.226, P=0.001 respectively. Also, the dumps with a home-proximity of 1m-20m were the most recorded in flat landscape areas, and most of the waste on these dumps were estimated to have a weight range of 1kg-200kgs (48%), 201kg-400kgs (27%), 401kg-600kgs (16%), and 601kg-800kgs (9%) respectively. Poor waste disposal system has been the main reason behind flood hazards in this sea-shore city, a phenomenon that has witnessed the destruction of both human lives and properties in the past. The city needs a modern waste management system to prevent or reduce the population of birds visiting the dump-sites which would often serve as vectors in cycling pathogens to humans from these dumps.
Hydrochemistry of River Owan water and groundwater in its vicinity were examined to decipher their quality status and evaluate the impact of man on the coastal area of the river. Twelve River Owan water and three groundwater samples were subjected to hydrochemical and bacteriological investigations using standard methods. Temperature, pH and electrical conductivity were measured insitu employing pH Testr Meter. The waters were alkaline (average pH of 9.27) signifying a slight trend of alkaline chemical reaction within the system. Electrical resistivity (EC) was virtually less than 1000µS/cm in all water samples indicating fresh water. The dominance of the major ions was as Na+ > Ca2+ >Mg2+ > K+ and HCO3− > Cl− > SO42− > NO3−. The average values of major ions (mg/L) in the order of dominance were 23.15, 11.56, 9.25, 9.07 and 79.63, 48.92, 29.18, 5.49 respectively. Total hardness of the water revealed that 12 out of 15 water samples were under soft water category ( TH ). All water samples tested positive to bacterial infection (1.60*102 e-coli 8.10*103 Cfu/ml). Anthropogenic activities dominated ionic sources in River Owan while that of the groundwater was mainly geogenic. Much of the natural character of the coastal environment of River Owan has been modified by human activities. Hygiene education of the public must be encouraged in order to ameliorate the unhygienic status of River Owan.