Tag Archives: War

The Graveyard of Empires: Human Cost of War in Afghanistan (Published)

Afghanistan is a land that is infamously difficult to administer. Empire after empire, countries after countries have tried to conquer the nation but have failed to do so. The USA withdrawal resulted in their names joining the long list of those who came before them. With that, it finally draws the curtains on the 20 years of war in the country that spanned over 4 USA presidencies. The war began with the US and its allies invading Afghanistan post the 9/11 attack on US soil by bombing Afghanistan under “Operation Enduring Freedom.” What followed was the struggle to rebuild Afghanistan, Taliban insurgency in the region, the USA surge, the subsequent drawdown of troops to the ultimate peace process. This paper analyses the human cost of the war. It further discusses the policy changes that are needed to ensure a comprehensive understanding of this issue. Various academic literature, articles, opinion pieces and various other sources are used as secondary sources.

Citation: Apoorva Iyer (2021) The Graveyard of Empires: Human Cost of War In Afghanistan, International Journal of International Relations, Media and Mass Communication Studies, Vol.7, No.3, pp.1-25

Keywords: Afghanistan, Taliban, USA, War

The Nigeria-Biafra War: Economic Challenges and Quest for Survival in Biafra, 1967-1970 (Published)

Nigeria was artificially structured and named by the British. This nomenclatural coloration brought different ethnic nationalities together. These ethnic nationalities located in different parts of the country with distinct languages, history and cultural backgrounds and values, were made to coexist together under the same political unit. Little effort was made by the British to achieve political unity among these groups. With the first and second military coups in 1966, ethnicity became a major factor in Nigeria’s political lexicon. By 1967, Nigeria experienced a major conflict that almost dismembered the country. The war had serious economic consequences on Biafra as a result of the economic blockade and other stringent policies imposed on them by the Nigerian government. This paper therefore, interrogates issues emanating from the economic blocked and the challenges faced by Biafran citizens during this period. It examines survival strategies adopted by the Biafran government, Biafran citizens and efforts made by international humanitarian organisations to support the people. In the content analysis, this paper made use of both primary and secondary sources. The study identified both positive and negative survival efforts made by the people of Biafra.

Keywords: Biafra, Nigeria, War, economic challenges, survival in Biafra

Major Threats to Pakistan from Afghanistan (Published)

Pakistan and Afghanistan share same culture, religion and history, but the main issue of fight between them is Durand Line. The rise in the terrorist attacks has destroyed friendly relations between them. After the Cold war, Afghanistan became a serious threat to Pakistan and when the USA attacked Afghanistan for swiping away the Taliban regime, this threat increased many times. After the incident of 9/11, the NATO forces forced Pakistan to become their ally in the War. Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) became home of militants because of the low security of the Pak –Afghan border which resulted in increased militancy in Khyber Pakhtunkhawa(KP).The increase in the terrorist attacks in the region has not only raised the death ratio but also damaged the infrastructure and economy of  FATA and KP particularly.At the end of 2014, the withdrawal of U.S. troops from Afghanistan did not completely suppress Afghanistan’s Taliban. It also encouraged Pakistan Taliban to control the Pakistan government in the same way. Pakistan should establish a friendly relationship with Afghanistan. This is not only conducive to the stability of the internal situation in Pakistan, but also to the improvement of bilateral relations with India. As a result, it will be easy to visit the Central Asian republic, and China will be more conducive to Pakistan in this respect.

Keywords: Taliban, Terror., War

Discourse analysis of political cinema in Iran after the war from 1989 to 2013 (Published)

The aim of this study was to discourse analyze of political cinema in Iran after the war from 1989 to 2013.  For the purpose of this research is descriptive analysis was conducted to collect information on library. Population in three period after the Islamic Revolution “from 1989 to 1996, 1997 to 2005 and from 2006 to 2013” was studied. Discourse analysis of political cinema after the war, within the period specified, underlying the approach of Fairclough and integrate it with roses, Aydma and Kress and Van Leeuwen who are affected by social semiotics, operational model for critical discourse analysis of the film. And with respect to the proposed model Paul Gay, the elements of the six organs, which he identifies as text fragments, examined chosen films. According to the findings in the first period, “1989 to 1996”, pure thoughts patriotic and revolutionary themes have been witnessing a fundamental transformation. Which include two periods, first, the concept of “development” that accompanied the pattern of “rationalitAy” in the Rafsanjani government conceptualized.  The discourse of war, the rise of the urban upper classes and groups based on the concept of “construction”, ie development projects, all of which are examples.  But in the second part of the first period, the discourse of “democracy” and “freedom” are met. In the second decade 1997 to 2005, traditional political discourse, reformer discourse changed. Government film policy, in particular, before and after June, under the sovereignty of political discourse “conservative” and “reformist” has been developed. The third period, from 2006 to 2013 with the victory of Ahmadinejad (2005), to open in 1981 in the form of a new meaning system helped the fundamentalist interpretation. Therefore it can be concluded that the selected films examined in this study have political implications affecting the society of his time.

Keywords: Fairclough and Paul Gay approach, Linguistics, War, critical discourse analysis, political cinema


Women in all ages in different countries have been victims of violence, particularly violence emanating from wars. In Africa, women have had to contend with rape, loneliness, shame and rejection among others. The Sierra Leone Civil War brought to the attention of the world the bestiality of the male folk. Although it affected all members of the Sierra Leonean society, its effects on women were more devastating. This paper examines the violation of the rights of women in the Sierra Leone Civil War; the role played by the rebel movement, government forces and civil defence corps in gender related abuses; and find out why women are more vulnerable to rights violation in armed conflicts particularly in Sierra Leone. The methodology adopted was based on secondary sources. Our findings are that women were raped, brutalized and murdered and in some cases abducted and used as sex slaves. The study recommended that perpetrators of war crimes particularly against women should be severely punished to deter others.

Keywords: Gender, Sierra Leone, Violence, War, Women, conflicts.

War And Peace In Eastern Yorubaland: Efon Alaaye And Her Neighbours (1815-1893) (Published)

Warfare was the most dominant theme of nineteenth century Yoruba history. During the period, Yorubaland was engulfed by bloody conflicts ranging from small and short wars to complex and protracted civil wars. Eastern Yorubaland was one of the major theaters of this “season of Anomie”. Aside the large scale destruction of lives and property, which is common in such situations, the wars bore significant social, economic and political consequences for the land and people. The disaster only terminated towards the end of the century as a result of the intervention by British colonial officials via a combination of diplomacy and military force. This paper is a historical documentation of the background, trajectory and aftermath of warfare and diplomacy between Efon Alaaye and her neighbours during the 19th century. The study seeks to interrogate the significant factors of causation, course and consequences of conflict in the area during the period under consideration. Data for the work comprise of primary sources such as oral evidence, archival materials etc, and secondary sources like books, journal articles, and so on.

Keywords: Eastern Yorubaland., Efon Alaaye, Ekitiparapo, Ibadan, Ijesa, Peace, War