A framework is built, wherein hydrological/water quality model is used to measure watershed sustainability. For this framework, watershed sustainability has been defined and quantified by defining social, environmental and biodiversity indicators. By providing weightage to these indicators, a “River Basin Sustainability Index” is built. The watershed sustainability is then calculated based on the concepts of reliability, resilience and vulnerability. The framework is then applied to a case study, where, based on watershed management principles, four land use scenarios are created in GIS. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used as a hydrology/water quality model. Based on the results the land uses are ranked for sustainability and policy implications have been discussed. This results show that land use (both type and location) impact watershed sustainability. The existing land use is weak in environmental sustainability. Also, riparian zones play a critical role in watershed sustainability, although beyond certain width their contribution is not significant.
The Ethics Of Covert Playacting: In Nathaniel Hawthorne’s “Wakefield” (Published)
Wakefield” constructs the situation of theater within theater within theater where almost every character is playing the audience of another stage. The story offers three layers of stages where the husband (one stage), who is being watched by the narrator and the readers (another stage), is furtively watching Mrs. Wakefield, the only player (a third stage). Oddly, no one theater is conscious of the encircling one. Each renders the encircled theater in vulnerable conditions and undergoes what it consciously makes others unconsciously experience. The paper examines three key groups of characters to explore what Hawthorne tries to find out through vulnerability and theatrical watching. These are Wakefield, his wife, and the narrator and readers. I will also attempt to examine how the treatment of these two concepts are manifested in the two authors’ handling of the narrative point of view. My objective is to reason that Hawthorne’s notion of vulnerability and theatrical watching offers innovative observations.
This paper will investigate the subtle and sensitive questioning of Women’s condition in Pakistan in Farooqi’s novel, The Story of a Widow. Farooqi’s title is misleading and leads one to think that this book too will portray the subjugated position of women in a patriarchal society but on closer investigation it is seen that Farooqi points towards the hindering and cowardly mindset of women in giving and supporting independence to their own kind. The portrait of the dead husband symbolizes the patriarchal presence. It is important to see that the judgmental attitude of the man is perceived by the wife even when he is no more. This is indicative of how powerfully the society is entrenched in the myth that man is wiser and more capable than the woman and therefore must remain in the driving seat. Despite the complete physical absence of Akbar Ali, Mona’s deceased husband, he continues to figure prominently in her thoughts. What is worth appreciating is the resilience of Mona with which she continues to defy and rise above the looks of rebuke and chastisement that Akbar Ali’s portrait continues to impart. After widowhood, Mona gains money as well as the liberty to make her own decisions yet she is, throughout the novel, cowed down by her sister and her daughters, relations that one would otherwise expect to be supportive and understanding. Through the struggle of Mona, Farooqi highlights the importance of self-growth and self –autonomy which can only be obtained by making ones own decisions, shouldering the burden of error, living through agony and finally coming out not triumphant but stronger and wiser i.e like the men.
The Impact of Flooding On the Livelihood of People Living In the Luhonono Area in the Zambezi Region, Namibia (Published)
This study examined the impact of floods on the livelihoods of the community of the Luhonono area (formally called Schuckmansburg) in the Kabbe constituency in the Zambezi Region of Namibia. The problem identified is the persistent flooding in the Luhonono area, giving rise to the need to look at the impact of floods on the livelihoods of the local community. The study employed both qualitative and quantitative approaches, utilising both descriptive and exploratory designs. The target population for the study was all the heads of households, community leaders and a political councillor of government in Luhonono area. The study applied both purposive sampling and simple random sampling techniques. Structured questionnaires and an interview guide were used as research instruments to collect data from the sample. The data was used to measure the impact of floods on the livelihood of the people in the flood-prone area. The data collected were computed using the Excel computer program version 16.0 and the data were analysed by both qualitative and quantitative techniques. Chi Square tests were carried out to determine the association of villages and the severity of the flooding to the respondents. Hypotheses to test this association were examined using the Chi Square method. It was established that there is no association between the villages and the overall severity of the floods in the Luhonono area. This implies that all the villages were equally affected by the flood. There is a need for further studies to develop baseline data on the impact of flood that will help the Government of the Republic of Namibia in establishing strategies that will help the communities in flood prone areas to develop resilience against the impact of floods.