Challenges Faced by Students with Visual Impairments When Learning Physics in Regular Secondary Schools (Published)
The curriculum in regular schools is designed for fully sighted children and is delivered largely through sighted related tasks. The preponderance of visually oriented and visually complex concepts and information in science classrooms poses significant challenges to learning among visually impaired students. Without systematic instructional attention to these challenges science may seem inaccessible to many students with visual impairment, ( Kumar et al 2001).This study investigated the challenges faced by students with visual impairment when learning physics in regular secondary schools. The intention of the study was to make policy makers to be aware of the difficulties that visually impaired students encounter when learning physics in regular secondary schools .The visually impaired students would then be supported so that they can overcome these difficulties. This would promote the national special needs educational policy framework which advocates for inclusive education. The objectives of the study was to identify problems visually impaired students encounter when learning physics in form two in regular secondary schools .The targeted population in this study was that of form two physics students with visual impairment. One hundred and forty seven students were selected from regular secondary schools within the study area. A purposive sampling technique was applied to identify the VI students within the study location. The location of the study was Busia County, Siaya County, Vihiga County and Kisumu County. The study was guided by the normalization theory. The argument behind it is that a child with whatever kind of disability can live a normal life if given all kind of support just like any other normal child. The data was collected coded and summarized on the basis of objectives of the study. The data was analyzed using SPSS program and reported using frequency distribution tables and percentages. Chi square was used to compare the proportions observed in each category with what would be expected. Test retest technique was used to test the reliability of the research instruments. The study found that classrooms in regular schools lacked adequate light hence are not suitable for accommodation of visually impaired learners. The visually impaired learners were exposed to inappropriate scripts of reading materials and that most of the respondents lacked optical and non-optical devices even though they needed them. The study also found that the visually impaired students did not receive support services from the vision support teachers nor interventional measures to help them overcome their visual limitations. The study recommended that Physics teachers adopt an inductive heuristic approach in teaching Physics to visually impaired learners. The study further recommended that teachers’ trainers should include inclusive education in their curriculum and that Ministry of Education should come up with proper guidelines about inclusive education. At least each regular school should have a department of special needs managed by a special needs teacher. The government through the MOE should also avail funds to regular secondary schools to enable them modify their environments for the purpose of inclusive education.
Challenges of Implementing Inclusive Education of Children with Visual Impairment in Port Harcourt, Rivers State (Published)
The study investigated the challenges of implementing inclusive education of children with visual impairment in Port Harcourt, Rivers State. The design of the study is descriptive survey design. The population of the study was all the 80 teachers of children with visual impairment in the 4 centres in Port Harcourt. The simple random sampling technique was used to draw 25% of the population as the sample for the study. A self-designed instrument titled Challenges of Implementing Inclusive Education Scale (CIIES) was used for the study. The cronbach alpha reliability estimate was used to establish the reliability of the instrument. The general reliability of CIIES is given at .92, Social Factors Subscale (SFS) .935, Economic Factors Subscale (EFS) .91 and Emotional Factors Subscale (EFS) .87. Three research questions were answered. Mean and standard deviation were used for the data analysis. It was found out among others that the social factors that may challenge effective implementation of inclusive education are: negative attitude of the society towards these students, unadoptable school environment and language/ communication barriers. More so, the economic factors are: inadequate funding, inadequate number of personnel, inadequate training for personnel and inadequate funding to purchase the necessary technological materials, while emotional factors are discrimination against children with visual impairment, lack of awareness of the special needs of children with visual impairment, marginalization of children with visual impairment. The following recommendations were made among others; the school administrators should take social activities like co-curricular activities very seriously in the schools; that the school administrators should endeavour to meet parents, host community and non-governmental functionaries like Tetfund and oil companies for financial assistance.
Survey of Preschoolers with Visual Impairment in Childhood Education in Enugu State, Nigeria (Published)
The study was survey of preschoolers with visual impairment in childhood education in Enugu State public primary schools. Descriptive survey was used for the study. The population of teachers was 13,621 in 1188 public primary schools of the state. The sample was 150 teachers drawn from 150 public primary schools through multistage sampling techniques. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire that was developed by the researcher. It was named Preschoolers with Visual Impairment Survey Questionnaire (PWVISQ). Likert response options of strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Disagree (DA) and Strongly Disagree (SD) was adopted. Mean scores and standard deviation were used. Mean scores of 2.5 and above was considered as accepted (for agreement) while mean score less than 2.5 was rejected (as disagreement) for answering the research questions which are three in number. The findings of the study revealed among others that the teachers are aware of those called preschoolers with visual impairment and no childhood education services given them. There are recommendations which include awareness campaign for parents of persons with visual impairment to send them to schools and training by the government and retraining of teachers of preschoolers with visual impairment for successful early childhood services for preschoolers with visual impairment.