Tag Archives: Virus

Psychological effect of Pandemic Covid-19 on families of health care professionals (Published)

Background: The Pandemic COVID-19 disease is of great public health concern to the world. Its impact is globally felt in all sectors. There is need to measure the level of psychological impact the virus has on families of health care professionals. Method: Online survey was conducted to collect the demographic data from participants. Statistical analysis was conducted using R statistical package to determine Psychological impact of COVID-19 on the respondents. Results: The study included 324 respondents from different countries. Panic effect was the most strongly agreed (54.9%) and thus impacts more on the respondents. Depression was experience by 49.7% of the respondents’ while 44.4% experience anxiety. The least strongly agreed was suicidal effect (13.9%) and divorce (18.2%).Conclusion: Pandemics such as COVID-19 has psychological impact on families of health care professionals’ pandemics cannot lead to divorce easily but can lead to panic, anxiety and depression.

Keywords: COVID-19, Depression, Divorce, Psychological, Virus, outbreak, pandemic, panic

A scoping review on epidemiology, etiology, transmission, clinical presentation, treatment and management of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) (Published)

Coronavirus (COVID-19) is a highly infectious disease which has posed serious threats to global health. This viral disease was discovered in late December 2019, in Wuhan, China. Infection rates due to the pandemic amounts to over 1 million globally while death rate is over 80,000. The United States, Italy and Spain are epicenters of the disease and have recorded more deaths due to the viral infection than other countries.  Since the virus is spreading worldwide, on March 11, 2020, the WHO officially described the COVID-19 outbreak as a pandemic. The virus is transmitted when people interact with each other for some time in close proximity. Precisely, this review aims to provide the evidence of early findings on the etiology, transmission, symptoms, treatment and management of COVID-19.Studies have recorded Covid-19 infection in asymptomatic patients and in those with visible symptoms. Elderly people, pregnant women, people with underlining illness and compromised immune system are very susceptible to COVID-19 than other categories of people, however, reports of deaths of people without history of underlining illness has led to controversies. The diseased due to the virus should try to seek appropriate medical help and limit their exposure to other unaffected persons. Currently, there are no vaccines for the pandemic, but the FDA has recommended hydroxyl chloroquine as a therapy for COVID-19. The likelihood of transmission can be reduced by practising hygienic measures. Frequent disinfection and cleaning are advised for groups that are at risk of contracting the virus.

Keywords: COVID-19, Therapy, Virus, asymptomatic, epicenter, immune system, pandemic, vaccines

Can Ebola Virus Disease Infect Domestic And Farm Animals And A Threat For Human Being Who Has Direct Contact And Consume Their Food Products?” A Review Paper (Published)

Ebola virus disease (EVD) also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a severe contagious disease affecting humans, non-human primates and some domestic species (e.g. pigs). While fruit bats are considered as a natural reservoir, the involvement of other species in the EBOV transmission cycle is unclear, especially for domesticated animals. However Dogs and pigs are so far the only domestic animals identified as species that can be infected with EBOV. In 2009 Reston-EBOV was the first EBOV reported to infect swine with indicated transmission to humans; and a survey in Gabon found over 30% sero prevalence for EBOV in dogs during the Ebola outbreak in 2001-2002. While infections in dogs appear to be asymptomatic, pigs experimentally infected with EBOV can develop clinical disease, depending on the virus species and possibly the age of the infected animals. In the experimental settings, pigs can transmit Zaire-Ebola virus to native pigs and macaques monkeys; however, their role during Ebola outbreaks in Africa needs to be clarified. In Africa, fruit bats are considered natural hosts and reservoirs of the Ebola virus although Ebola outbreaks have been observed in chimpanzees, gorillas, macaque monkeys and in some pigs in the Philippines and China. These latter animals, like human beings, have been considered as “accidental hosts” and not reservoirs of the Ebola virus. A fact sheet recently released by the World Health Organization (WHO) has proved helpful in this regard, revealing that the Ebola virus is transmitted to people from animals and subsequently spreads through the human population through person to person contacts. The risk of infection among humans from animals may be reduced by avoiding contact with fruit bats or monkeys etc. avoiding consumption of their raw meat and ensuring that all animal products are thoroughly cooked before consumption. Animal handlers are advised to wear gloves and other protective clothing. Significant issues about disease development remain to be resolved for EBOV. Evaluation of current human vaccine candidates or development of veterinary vaccines de novo for EBOV might need to be considered, especially if pigs or dogs are implicated in the transmission of an African species of EBOV to humans.

Keywords: Disease, EBOV, EVD, Ebola, Farm Animals, Food Products, Virus

Can Ebola Virus Disease Infect Domestic and Farm Animals and AaThreat For Human Being Who Has Direct Contact And Consume Their Food Products?” (Published)

Ebola virus disease (EVD) also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a severe contagious disease affecting humans, non-human primates and some domestic species (e.g. pigs). While fruit bats are considered as a natural reservoir, the involvement of other species in the EBOV transmission cycle is unclear, especially for domesticated animals. However Dogs and pigs are so far the only domestic animals identified as species that can be infected with EBOV. In 2009 Reston-EBOV was the first EBOV reported to infect swine with indicated transmission to humans; and a survey in Gabon found over 30% sero prevalence for EBOV in dogs during the Ebola outbreak in 2001-2002. While infections in dogs appear to be asymptomatic, pigs experimentally infected with EBOV can develop clinical disease, depending on the virus species and possibly the age of the infected animals. In the experimental settings, pigs can transmit Zaire-Ebola virus to native pigs and macaques monkeys; however, their role during Ebola outbreaks in Africa needs to be clarified. In Africa, fruit bats are considered natural hosts and reservoirs of the Ebola virus although Ebola outbreaks have been observed in chimpanzees, gorillas, macaque monkeys and in some pigs in the Philippines and China. These latter animals, like human beings, have been considered as “accidental hosts” and not reservoirs of the Ebola virus. A fact sheet recently released by the World Health Organization (WHO) has proved helpful in this regard, revealing that the Ebola virus is transmitted to people from animals and subsequently spreads through the human population through person to person contacts. The risk of infection among humans from animals may be reduced by avoiding contact with fruit bats or monkeys etc. avoiding consumption of their raw meat and ensuring that all animal products are thoroughly cooked before consumption. Animal handlers are advised to wear gloves and other protective clothing. Significant issues about disease development remain to be resolved for EBOV. Evaluation of current human vaccine candidates or development of veterinary vaccines de novo for EBOV might need to be considered, especially if pigs or dogs are implicated in the transmission of an African species of EBOV to humans.

Keywords: Disease, Ebola, Farm Animals Human Food Products, Virus