Tag Archives: Violence

Ahdāf Soueif Makes a Map for Love: A Reality or a Fantasy Through the Meeting of Civilizations and Times? A Dialectic Vision in the Novel The Map of Love by the Egyptian Novelist Ahdāf Soueif (Published)

It is impossible to talk about literature except through its genres. Besides, it is impossible to deal with any genre without starting with one of its types. When the writer decides to create a literary work, he produces it in the frame of a story, a novel or a poem within a general perception of literature, where all literary genres meet. The Arab novel has developed since the middle of the last century and it has achieved a presence that imposes itself on other genres and types, especially poetry, which kept occupying the central position in creativity. The historical novel, for example, was established in the Arab world by Jurjī Zaydān (1861-1914) at the beginning of the twentieth century, modelled on the Western historical novel and a lot of Arab novelists wrote in its form, stressing in one way or another that they were writing a historical novel. The historical novel is a type of novel in which history blends with imagination, and it intends to describe a certain period or a certain major event in a suitable narrative style that is based on history data, but without being tied or committed to it but often without adherence or commitment to them in most cases.   When Ahdāf Sueif wrote The Map of Love, she introduced it in a dazzling way because it is based on the reader’s manner of reading history and the concept of history through an amazing love story that is full of beauty that makes the reader unite with the text.

Citation: Hanan Bishara (2022) Ahdāf Soueif Makes a Map for Love: A Reality or a Fantasy Through the Meeting of Civilizations and Times?  A Dialectic Vision in the Novel The Map of Love by the Egyptian Novelist Ahdāf Soueif, European Journal of English Language and Literature Studies, Vol.10, No.4, pp.13-36

 

Keywords: Cultural, Violence, colonized, colonizer, external separation, internal assimilation, natural acculturation.

Stepmothers’ Violence against Stepdaughters in Ashanti Region of Ghana: A Hindrance to Gender Equality (Published)

It is a known fact that gender inequality occur, more often than not, as men take offensive taste as they take certain pleasure in discriminating against women in enhancing their (men’s) self-respect, as the men end up discriminating against womanhood and subjecting women into a lesser liberty. However, women also contribute to gender inequality as they take offensive taste. This paper looks at how stepmothers perpetrate violence against their stepdaughters in Ghana and how such act contribute to gender inequality. The study was a longitudinal study which took place between 2005 and 2016. Stepdaughters were selected from four schools conveniently and observed for at most a three-year period. The findings were that the most frequent physical violence meted out to stepdaughters includes waking them up early from the bed, denying them of food, slapping, shaking, pushing and pulling, punching, choking, canning, scratching, pulling hair, hitting with an object, and, threatening. Also, stepmothers in the study area do not have mothering love for other people’s daughters but subject stepdaughters to psychologically, emotionally and physically oppression. The stepdaughters academic performances became affected thereby leading to majority of them dropped out of school. The study concluded that stepmothers in the study area take offensive taste by subjecting their stepdaughters to hardship and end up discriminate against womanhood and subject women to a lesser liberty thereby widen gender inequality.

Citation: Simon Kyei  (2022) Stepmothers’ Violence against Stepdaughters in Ashanti Region of Ghana: A Hindrance to Gender Equality, International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Research, Vol.8, No.2 pp.38-56

 

Keywords: : Academic Performance, Gender Inequality, Violence, stepdaughters, stepmothers

Knowledge and Attitude towards Violence against Women among Male Health Workers in Akure South Local Government Area, Akure, Ondo-State (Published)

Citation: Mayowa Opeyemi Adekola, Joseph Oyeniyi Aina, Mary Ayodeji Gbenga-Epebinu  (2022) Knowledge and Attitude towards Violence against Women among Male Health Workers in Akure South Local Government Area, Akure, Ondo-State, International Journal of Health and Psychology Research, Vol.10, No.1, pp.1-17

Abstract: The research examined of knowledge and attitude towards violence against women among male health workers in Akure South Local Government Area, Akure, Ondo State. The study adopted a quantitative descriptive research design. A sample size of 191 respondents was determined using Cochran formula. Multistage sampling procedure was used to select 191 respondents from the population. A validated questionnaire was used with a Cronbach’s alpha internal consistency ranging from 0.75 to 0.78 respectively. Data were collected and analyzed using SPSS version 27 to generate summaries of descriptive statistics and inferential statistics at p=0.01.  Findings from the research show that 59% of the respondents have poor knowledge of violence against women while 41% of them have good knowledge. Result also revealed that 51% of the respondents have negative attitude towards VAW, while 49% have good knowledge of VAW.  It is concluded that there was poor knowledge and negative attitude towards violence against women among male health workers in Akure south Local Government Area. The implication of this is high tendency for men to perpetrate the act of violence against women. It is therefore recommended among others that Nurses should put up measures such as; enlightenment programmes to ensure men are well oriented about issues related to violence against women, this creates positive influence on the knowledge and attitude of men towards violence against women.

Keywords: Education, Knowledge, Violence, Women, attitude, religious belief

Role of Women in Riot Torn Noakhali in 1946: An Extraordinary Journey for Peace, Stability and humanity. (Published)

In the 1940s when India was at its final stage of anti-colonial struggle, communal politics had spread its tentacles in the Indian political scene. In 1946 the communal balance of the Bengal Presidency, on the eastern part of India became delicate. Calcutta first witnessed a scene of horrific communal violence in the month of August. This was followed by the devastating communal riot in Noakhali, in the erstwhile Eastern Bengal (now in Bangladesh) where the Muslim majority community unleashed a reign of terror upon the Hindu minority community. But the most horrific part of the riot was that women of the Hindu community were abducted, molested and forcibly married to Muslims. The British government was, however, very indifferent to this situation and did little to calm the situation. It was in this situation that Mahatma Gandhi became the sole source of hope when he undertook a peace-keeping mission in Noakhali to restore communal harmony. More importantly he inspired a number of women to come forward in support of riot affected people. They went into remote villages, stationed themselves there and worked hard to restore harmony between the two communities, to convince the terrified Hindus to stay back and rebuild their social life. As women, the workers were especially empathetic towards the plight of women as there were number of cases of violence, molestation, abduction and forcible marriage. However, despite their best efforts, women achieved limited success. The communal mistrust was so deep that stray incidents of violence continued to happen. The effort to give molested women a new life also came to a naught because very few women were ready to admit that they were raped or molested. However, in those days of gloom the efforts the women made to bring about a positive change cannot be ignored.

Keywords: Conversion, Violence, Women, abduction, communal riots

Forms and Causes of Violence Women Perpetrate Against Themselves in Winneba in the Effutu Municipality of Ghana (Published)

This study sought to examine violence against women in Winneba in the Effutu Municipality, Ghana, with the focus on females being victims as well as perpetrators of violence. The study ascertained the forms and causative factors of violence against women. The ecological model and the social learning theory were adopted for the study. Qualitative research approach was employed with a focus on phenomenological research design for the study. A total of seventeen (17) participants constituted the sample size. The participants were selected using purposive and snowballing sampling techniques. Semi-structured interview guide was used to obtain the data. The study revealed that unequal power relations, suspicion of adultery, being a victim of violence during childhood, are the reasons why women employ various forms of violence against women in Winneba while poverty and single parenting made other women sufferers of such violence. Based on these findings, the study recommended that stakeholders such as Domestic Violence Victim Support Unit (DOVVSU), Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Protection and Commission on Human Rights and Administrative Justice (CHRAJ) should formulate policies and organise programmes that can address risk factors associated with violence at domestic, community and societal levels. Religious groups and non-governmental organisations in Winneba in the Effutu Municipality should organise women empowerment programmes with the intention of reducing women’s dependency on other people which will at the long run reduce violence against women.

Citation: Roberta Mbiri and  Lucy Effeh Attom (2021) Forms and Causes of Violence Women Perpetrate Against Themselves in Winneba in the Effutu Municipality of Ghana, Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol.9, No.10, pp.35-62

Keywords: Causes, Effutu municipality, Forms, Ghana, Violence, Women, perpetrators

Frantz Fanon’s Justifications to Violence as discussed in The Wretched of the Earth (Published)

This study is mainly devoted to approaching Frantz Fanon’s influential text, The Wretched of the Earth, to explain how it is considered as a foremost representative of the post-colonial texts. This study concentrates on Fanon’s consideration of the role of violence as an inevitable means of resistance in the colonial context. For Fanon, the colonized people’s use of violence is a natural reaction to the colonizer’s violence, and it is the most effective strategy of resistance that compels the colonial authority to negotiate and give the chance to the colonized to speak. This study highlights Fanon’s call for organizing and teaching the spontaneous sectors of the resisting people to bring the people’s struggle to success.

Citation: Abdelnaeim Ibrahim Awad Elaref and  Abdalatif Mamoun Hassan (2021) Frantz Fanon’s Justifications to Violence as discussed in The Wretched of the Earth, Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol.9, No.9, pp.12-20

 

 

Keywords: Colonizer; Colonized, Resistance, Violence, colonial context, native

Periscoping the Economic Basis of Electoral Violence in Nigeria, 1999-2019 (Published)

Elections are the hallmarks of democracy; they also serve the purposes of peaceful change in the government and confer political legitimacy on the government. Viewed from this prism, elections represent the expression of the sovereign will of the people. However, the conduct of elections in plural society like Nigeria is often fraught with animosities and violence. This paper, therefore, aimed at examining the economic implications of electoral violence on Nigeria’s democratic trajectory. The paper makes use of qualitative and quantitative sources of historical data. It also employs and applies frustration aggression and systemic theory in discussing the economic basis of electoral violence in Nigeria. The study establishes the fact that elections in Nigeria since the return of democracy in Nigeria are hardly free and fair. They are manipulated and characterized with violence with grave implications on the country’s economic development. The paper concludes that in order to do away with the teething challenges that usually translate to electoral violence in Nigeria certain things need to be done. In this connection, the paper recommends granting of full autonomy to the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC); this would engender administrative efficiency and professionalism of the body. It also recommends among others,  the reduction in wages and allowances of political office holders. The idea is to make politics less financially attractive so that leaders will see themselves as agents of development than money mongers.  

Keywords: Elections, Violence, manipulations and economy

Symbolism and Race in Amiri Baraka’s Dutchman (Published)

Theatre is one of the means by which different cultures both proclaim and question themselves.It is constantly connected with the broad forces of insurrection and rituals in different societies. Starting from the beginning of the previous century theatre has developed as a practice with which to rethink gender, violence, ethnicity, identity and arts. Racial thinking and modern stage interact to reset an understanding of race and turn individual experiences into art. Amiri Baraka’s Dutchman (1964) is the study of a culture of white supremacy that has historically marginalized all other races, presenting some possible consequences. In an attempt to combat the deep rooted problem of racial discrimination in the American society, Baraka tries to examine and analyze the psyche behind it.

Keywords: Culture, Discrimination, Violence, race

Factors Influencing Domestic Violence and Its Mitigation Strategies among Rural Farm Households in Imo State Nigeria (Published)

This study examined the factors influencing domestic violence and its mitigation strategies among rural farm households in Imo State Nigeria. Using multi stage and purpose sampling techniques, 120 respondents were selected from the three agricultural zones in Imo State. Data were obtained using interview schedule. The validity of the instruments was determined by experts in the field of rural development and reliability established using test-retest reliability method. Descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage, mean, and Duncan Multiple Range Technique and multiple regression model were employed in data analysis. Results showed that the double-log+ function was approximately 0.98 and significant at its alpha level. Results also indicate that an average of 46.8% of the respondents strongly agreed with the statements while 22.5% agreed, 16.1% strongly disagreed a 14.5% disagreed with the identified effects. The mitigation strategies adopted by respondents had mean values as follows retaliation (3.38), separation (3.40), heavy alcohol intake (3.38) family counseling (2.98) and giving satisfactory sex regularly to intimate partner (2.86). The factors influencing domestic violence was devastating, some variables increasing domestic violence, although family counselling plays important remedial role on livelihoods of rural farm households in minimizing its negative effects on rural farm households in Imo state. The study therefore recommended that there should be public enlightenment through the mass media on the side effects of domestic violence on victims.

Keywords: Domestic, Mitigation, Violence, households, influencing

Whatever Happened to the Arab Spring: Albert Cossery’s Philosophy of Revolution in The Jokers (Published)

This paper investigates Cossery’s philosophy of revolution in his novel La Violence et la Dérision (1964), translated into English as The Jokers in 2010. I examine Cossery’s philosophy in the light of Michel Foucault’s concept of power and his views on revolutions in general and the Iranian 1979 Revolution against the Pahlavi regime in particular. I argue that Foucault’s analysis of the revolutionary situation in Iran still applies to the revolution that took place in Egypt on January 25, 2011. This argument extends to Cossery’s novel. The Jokers represents a revolution that is similarly “out of history” with a similar hope for success. While the January revolution is located at the extremely serious and reverent, the revolution in Cossery’s novel wallows in ridicule and irreverence. Due to the opposite directions taken by the serious revolution in reality and the ridiculous one in the novel (the former soaring up to heaven, the latter falling down to earth), both of them are, in Foucauldian terms, located out of history, challenging the dominant power structures. Cossery manages to bring a group of Diogenean characters to the frontlines of an extraordinary revolution. These characters usually play secondary roles in works of art about resistance and revolution. In this novel, they are the leaders, the planning and the executive body of Cossery’s philosophy. In the end, the Diogeneans succeed, but their ultimate success still depends on the abandonment of traditional ways of revolution, because governments are used to these ways, and those in power know how to turn them to their advantage.

Keywords: Foucault, Revolution, Violence, diogenean, dominant, indifference.

Role of Women in Riot Torn Noakhali in 1946: An Extraordinary Journey for Peace, Stability and humanity. (Published)

In the 1940s when India was at its final stage of anti-colonial struggle, communal politics had spread its tentacles in the Indian political scene. In 1946 the communal balance of the Bengal Presidency, on the eastern part of India became delicate. Calcutta first witnessed a scene of horrific communal violence in the month of August. This was followed by the devastating communal riot in Noakhali, in the erstwhile Eastern Bengal (now in Bangladesh) where the Muslim majority community unleashed a reign of terror upon the Hindu minority community. But the most horrific part of the riot was that women of the Hindu community were abducted, molested and forcibly married to Muslims. The British government was, however, very indifferent to this situation and did little to calm the situation. It was in this situation that Mahatma Gandhi became the sole source of hope when he undertook a peace-keeping mission in Noakhali to restore communal harmony. More importantly he inspired a number of women to come forward in support of riot affected people. They went into remote villages, stationed themselves there and worked hard to restore harmony between the two communities, to convince the terrified Hindus to stay back and rebuild their social life. As women, the workers were especially empathetic towards the plight of women as there were number of cases of violence, molestation, abduction and forcible marriage. However, despite their best efforts, women achieved limited success. The communal mistrust was so deep that stray incidents of violence continued to happen. The effort to give molested women a new life also came to a naught because very few women were ready to admit that they were raped or molested. However, in those days of gloom the efforts the women made to bring about a positive change cannot be ignored.

Keywords: Violence, Women, abduction, communal riots, comversion.

Insurgency, Armed Herdsmen and Instability in Nigeria: A Search for the Way Forward (Published)

The history of modern Nigerian State between 1960 and 2020 is characterized by violent and bloody conflicts such as the political crisis of the First Republic, the Nigerian civil war, the ethno-religious violence of the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s, the Niger-Delta crisis, the Boko-Haram insurgency and the armed herdsmen menace. All these antecedents have tremendous adverse effects on the nation’s social, political and economic development with attendant consequences and costs on the art of governance in the nation and on other African countries. It is against the aforementioned concerns that this article isolates and examines the consequences of the activities of Boko-Haram insurgency and armed herdsmen, not only particularly in North-Eastern and Northern region of Nigeria, but the whole country at large. The paper adopts a multi-disciplinary approach and analyzes the effects of the two phenomena on the Nigerian people and government. The paper establishes the fact that Boko-Haram insurgency and armed herdsmen attacks in North-Eastern region of Nigeria have led to social, political and economic instability, not only on the Northern region, but Nigeria as a whole. The paper concludes by suggesting among many ways, a robust security network to completely neutralize the activities of the two groups in North-Eastern Nigeria.

Keywords: Boko Haram, Instability, Insurgency, Violence, armed herdsmen

Analysis of the impact of Television Programme on Primary School Children Learning Behaviour in Awka Urban (Published)

Television viewing among young children has been an on-going issue as it is found to affect their development in various areas. This problem is getting more worrisome as the percentage and amount of hours of television exposure among young children is increasing especially with the growing production of children’s television programs. The paper therefore analyzes the impact of these television programmers’ on primary school children learning behaviour. The study is guided by Albert Bandura’s, social learning theory which distinguishes between enactive and vicarious learning by doing and experiencing the consequences of your actions. Vicarious learning is learning by observing others. Primary and secondary data were collected and analyzed qualitatively. It is important for your children as the people of tomorrow to be media literate, educative programmes enhance the intellectual ability of the children. Hence academic level of these children understudy is highly discouraging. Parents should set limits discuss with their young children about what is right and what is wrong especially on aggressive behaviours.

Keywords: Parents, School Children, Television, Violence, learning behaviour

Electoral Malpractice as a Challenge to Sustainable Development in Nigeria (Published)

This study is a descriptive one. It examines the motives behind electoral malpractice in Nigeria, finds out the factors that aid the act in the study area, and discusses the consequences of electoral malpractice on the country’s sustainable development. It relied on secondary data that were content analysed. The study found that crave for power, attitude of the politicians who see politics as investment, vengeance and preponderance of seeing electoral periods as pay-back times are some of the motives for engaging in electoral malpractice. Additionally, poverty, lack or poor political education, bribery and corruption, and inadequate planning on the part of political parties/candidates are some of the factors responsible for electoral malpractice. The study also found that electoral malpractice slows down development, breeds violence and destroys the image of Nigeria. The study further draws implications of electoral malpractice for the Nigerian state. As ways out of the challenge, there is need for more political education by National Orientation Agency and Independent National Electoral Commission, institution of electoral-courts, and thorough enforcement of the electoral act, making the electoral body truly autonomous and putting of appropriate legislation in place to punish offenders in order to overcome some of the havocs electoral malpractice wrecks in Nigeria.

Keywords: Development, Election, Violence, electoral courts, electoral malpractice

Psychosocial Factors Involved In Dating Violence in College Students (Published)

The purpose of study is to examine the psychosocial factors that lead to gender-based violence during courtship in university students. A descriptive analysis was conducted where participants were randomly selected, with a minimum of 2 months of dating time, using the dating violence assessment (CUVINO) which consists of 42 reagents in eight different sections. The factors found are substance abuse, co-dependency, insecurity and a very frequently reciprocal pattern of psychological aggression. Eight variables were taken into account as detachment in which 13.7% said that their partner did not show much interest and 21% mentioned that they noticed irresponsibility in their relationship from their partner, humiliation where 15.7% said they received frequent negative reviews of his partner, sexual violence where 13.7% said that he had no good communication with his partner, coercion where 21% of the students responded that they felt psychologically pressured, physical violence where 16.7% said that they had blows in their mostly justified relationship for games. Gender violence in which 31.4% heard mockery from their partner towards other people. The punishment in couples has 34.4%, 25.5% responded that their partner’s whims. Nowadays, the way in which women and men conceive love determines the way in which the relationship with their partner is; they understand it as a combination of romanticism and violence.

Keywords: Violence, co-dependency and insecurity., dating

Uyo Residents’ Perception of Selected Newspaper Coverage of Gender-Based Violence in Nigeria (Published)

This study examined Uyo Residents’ Perception of Selected Newspaper Coverage of Gender-based violence in Nigeria. The study made use of survey method. Simple random sampling technique was used for the study and the sample size was determined using Taro Yamane’s formula. The sample size of the study was 400. From the findings, majority of the respondents (51.3%) were of the opinion that Daily Sun and Vanguard newspapers do not cover Gender-based violence issues frequently. Based on these findings, the study recommend that there is need to strategise ways that will facilitate the prominence of GBV stories in the newspapers (like putting GBV stories on the centre spread or front pages) where all genders are well covered and given prominence in order to aid readers in understanding the issues of GBV.

Keywords: Perception, Violence, agenda setting., coverage, gender-based violence

Evaluation of Corruption and Conflict in Nigerian Oil Industry: Imperative for Sustainable Development (Published)

Not only can corruption keep African states in cycles of violence by funding armed groups and criminal networks, it can also prevent the development of effective institutions of governance. When money and resources are diverted by corrupt African officials to private accounts and businesses instead of being channeled to inclusive citizen’s needs, the clock turns back on social and economic development. This, in turn, can create further instability. In these ways, corruption, conflict and sustainable development are linked. Since its return to civil rule in May 1999, the country, especially the oil producing Niger Delta region, has drifted from one violent conflict to another, often with devastating consequences on human life and socio-economic development. Most analysts blame this violence on the many injustices perpetrated by the central authorities (especially the inadequacies of the current revenue sharing formula that denies oil bearing states their dues). The paper examines the relationship between corruption in oil sector, conflict and sustainable development and was anchored on resource curse theory. This study recommends amongst others that the award of oil block, contract, and licensing and production right should follow due process and transparent process. Also that the awarding of oil block to individuals should be discourage rather they should be awarded to corporate entities with wide spread ownership.

Keywords: Conflict, Corruption, Development, Violence, oil industry

Evaluation of Corruption and Conflict in Nigerian Oil Industry: Imperative for Sustainable Development (Published)

Not only can corruption keep African states in cycles of violence by funding armed groups and criminal networks, it can also prevent the development of effective institutions of governance. When money and resources are diverted by corrupt African officials to private accounts and businesses instead of being channeled to inclusive citizen’s needs, the clock turns back on social and economic development. This, in turn, can create further instability. In these ways, corruption, conflict and sustainable development are linked. Since its return to civil rule in May 1999, the country, especially the oil producing Niger Delta region, has drifted from one violent conflict to another, often with devastating consequences on human life and socio-economic development. Most analysts blame this violence on the many injustices perpetrated by the central authorities (especially the inadequacies of the current revenue sharing formula that denies oil bearing states their dues). The paper examines the relationship between corruption in oil sector, conflict and sustainable development and was anchored on resource curse theory. This study recommends amongst others that the award of oil block, contract, and licensing and production right should follow due process and transparent process. Also that the awarding of oil block to individuals should be discourage rather they should be awarded to corporate entities with wide spread ownership.

Keywords: Conflict, Corruption, Development, Violence, oil industry

The Place of Peace Education as a Panacea for Global Security (Published)

This paper explains the meaning of the following concepts: Peace, Violence and War, Global Security and Peace Education. It states that education despite being an instrument per excellence for achieving positive national and global goals, have been used by some nations to perpetuate hate instead of using it to instil a culture of peace. Peace education is therefore the only type of education required in creating a culture of peace in the minds of youths and as such should be used to achieve global security. The paper also suggested five ways global security could be achieved through peace education which are; raising global citizens, building a culture of peace, creating economic development and eradicating poverty, acquiring conflict resolution skills, and raising friends of the earth and environmental peace builders. The paper concludes by with some implications of the understanding of peace, violence and war, which include the need to ensure justice, welfare and access to education for all as necessary actions to ensure peace and global security.  

Keywords: Global Security, Peace, Peace Education, Violence

Philosophy of authentic humanism: the only way of curbing conflict and violence (Published)

The ultimate goal of Humanism is human flourishing; making life better for all humans, and as the most conscious species, also promoting concern for the welfare of other sentient beings and the planet as a whole. The focus is on doing good and living well in the here and now, and leaving the world a better place for those who come after. This paper aims at presenting Humanism and its policies if well applied  as a  way of not  only curbing violence, terrorism, genocide and all forms of social ills associated with our contemporary and global world of today, but also a way to  bring about the much needed peace, harmony and progress in this era that has been battered by these ills.

Keywords: Genocide, Harmony, Humanism, Peace, Terrorism, Violence