Tag Archives: Violence

Uyo Residents’ Perception of Selected Newspaper Coverage of Gender-Based Violence in Nigeria (Published)

This study examined Uyo Residents’ Perception of Selected Newspaper Coverage of Gender-based violence in Nigeria. The study made use of survey method. Simple random sampling technique was used for the study and the sample size was determined using Taro Yamane’s formula. The sample size of the study was 400. From the findings, majority of the respondents (51.3%) were of the opinion that Daily Sun and Vanguard newspapers do not cover Gender-based violence issues frequently. Based on these findings, the study recommend that there is need to strategise ways that will facilitate the prominence of GBV stories in the newspapers (like putting GBV stories on the centre spread or front pages) where all genders are well covered and given prominence in order to aid readers in understanding the issues of GBV.

Keywords: Perception, Violence, agenda setting., coverage, gender-based violence

Evaluation of Corruption and Conflict in Nigerian Oil Industry: Imperative for Sustainable Development (Published)

Not only can corruption keep African states in cycles of violence by funding armed groups and criminal networks, it can also prevent the development of effective institutions of governance. When money and resources are diverted by corrupt African officials to private accounts and businesses instead of being channeled to inclusive citizen’s needs, the clock turns back on social and economic development. This, in turn, can create further instability. In these ways, corruption, conflict and sustainable development are linked. Since its return to civil rule in May 1999, the country, especially the oil producing Niger Delta region, has drifted from one violent conflict to another, often with devastating consequences on human life and socio-economic development. Most analysts blame this violence on the many injustices perpetrated by the central authorities (especially the inadequacies of the current revenue sharing formula that denies oil bearing states their dues). The paper examines the relationship between corruption in oil sector, conflict and sustainable development and was anchored on resource curse theory. This study recommends amongst others that the award of oil block, contract, and licensing and production right should follow due process and transparent process. Also that the awarding of oil block to individuals should be discourage rather they should be awarded to corporate entities with wide spread ownership.

Keywords: Conflict, Corruption, Development, Violence, oil industry

Evaluation of Corruption and Conflict in Nigerian Oil Industry: Imperative for Sustainable Development (Published)

Not only can corruption keep African states in cycles of violence by funding armed groups and criminal networks, it can also prevent the development of effective institutions of governance. When money and resources are diverted by corrupt African officials to private accounts and businesses instead of being channeled to inclusive citizen’s needs, the clock turns back on social and economic development. This, in turn, can create further instability. In these ways, corruption, conflict and sustainable development are linked. Since its return to civil rule in May 1999, the country, especially the oil producing Niger Delta region, has drifted from one violent conflict to another, often with devastating consequences on human life and socio-economic development. Most analysts blame this violence on the many injustices perpetrated by the central authorities (especially the inadequacies of the current revenue sharing formula that denies oil bearing states their dues). The paper examines the relationship between corruption in oil sector, conflict and sustainable development and was anchored on resource curse theory. This study recommends amongst others that the award of oil block, contract, and licensing and production right should follow due process and transparent process. Also that the awarding of oil block to individuals should be discourage rather they should be awarded to corporate entities with wide spread ownership.

Keywords: Conflict, Corruption, Development, Violence, oil industry

The Place of Peace Education as a Panacea for Global Security (Published)

This paper explains the meaning of the following concepts: Peace, Violence and War, Global Security and Peace Education. It states that education despite being an instrument per excellence for achieving positive national and global goals, have been used by some nations to perpetuate hate instead of using it to instil a culture of peace. Peace education is therefore the only type of education required in creating a culture of peace in the minds of youths and as such should be used to achieve global security. The paper also suggested five ways global security could be achieved through peace education which are; raising global citizens, building a culture of peace, creating economic development and eradicating poverty, acquiring conflict resolution skills, and raising friends of the earth and environmental peace builders. The paper concludes by with some implications of the understanding of peace, violence and war, which include the need to ensure justice, welfare and access to education for all as necessary actions to ensure peace and global security.  

Keywords: Global Security, Peace, Peace Education, Violence

Philosophy of authentic humanism: the only way of curbing conflict and violence (Published)

The ultimate goal of Humanism is human flourishing; making life better for all humans, and as the most conscious species, also promoting concern for the welfare of other sentient beings and the planet as a whole. The focus is on doing good and living well in the here and now, and leaving the world a better place for those who come after. This paper aims at presenting Humanism and its policies if well applied  as a  way of not  only curbing violence, terrorism, genocide and all forms of social ills associated with our contemporary and global world of today, but also a way to  bring about the much needed peace, harmony and progress in this era that has been battered by these ills.

Keywords: Genocide, Harmony, Humanism, Peace, Terrorism, Violence

Unjustice with Women in Pakistan: A Critical Review (Published)

Behind the underestimation of women from all walks of life in Pakistan, the aim is to avoid the selection process. To be sure, it is useless to appear in the women’s trade unions, where they can endure barbarism. In spite of this, the behavior of the debilitated women from the infringement of their personal rights is common. Although the Constitution of the Pakistan stipulates that all citizens are equal before the law and should not be separated under the premise of gender, there is a comprehensive standard practice of abusing them. These customary structures are obstacles to the equal status of women in Pakistani society.

Keywords: Gender Inequality, Obstacles, Violence

The Rhetoric of Violence in the Poetry of Don L. Lee, Nikki Giovanni and Sonia Sanchez: A Reading in Ethnic Poetry (Published)

The 1960s in America witnessed an abundance of ethnic poetry authored by young black poets. Most of that poetry was devoted to the rejection of the American culture in favor of the consolidation of an African-American personality independent of White America. This new wave of black poetry of the 1960s and ‘70s was, thus, not only a literature of protest, which gradually turned into violence exercised against white Americans, but also an outcome of a psychological state encapsulated in the internal problems of black Americans. This new black poetry was primarily employed as a catalyst aiming at awakening the ethno-political consciousness of black people. It, therefore, incorporated elements of black culture and mythos, which were meant to enhance the values of the struggle and hence the revolution to be ignited against the American value system. Utilizing the socio-political events of the period as a setting and the “black aesthetic theory,originated in the same decade, the 1960s, as a critical framework, the present study explores the revolutionary poetry of black American poets, such as Don L. Lee (Haki Madhubuti), Nikki Giovanni, and Sonia Sanchez. In this context, the study will argue that the black poetry of the 1960s is but an offshoot of the protest motif in Afro-American poetry first initiated by the black slave poets of the 18th century. So, consequently, the black poets, dealt with in this study, will be contended to make a breakthrough and to pursue, instead, a black literary nationalism, capable of reflecting the aspirations of the Blacks. Their poetic attempts will be argued to promulgate the “black aesthetic,” to revitalize black values and to call for revolution.

Keywords: Afro-American Poetry, Black Poetry, Catalyst, Don l. Lee, Ethno-Political Consciousness, Nikki Giovanni, Protest Motif, Radical Development, Revolutionary Poets of 1960s and 1970s, Sonia Sanchez, Violence, rhetoric, the Black Aesthetic Theory

Prevention of Discrimination and Violence in Grassroot Sport in School and Sports Clubs (Published)

The purpose of the study is to clarify the various national contexts and characteristics in the manifestations of violence, racism and discrimination in grassroots sport in schools and sport clubs. It aims to identify good practices and innovative approaches that are applied at regional, national and international levels that will help the PE teachers end coaches to deal effectively with violence, racism, lack of tolerance. The research was conducted during June – September 2015 through a focus-group discussion and interview with key experts in physical education and sport. The interviews outline that the poverty and other kinds of differences like the ethnicity, race and culture are risky factors provoking discrimination in sport should be approbated. In summary, the needs of the teachers and the coaches refer to possibilities and conditions to have institutional mechanisms, which can provide them professional support, and cooperative social measures for dealing with discrimination.

Keywords: Coaches, Discrimination, Grassroots sports, PE teachers, School, Violence

Treatment of Violence in King Lear and Bond’s Lear (Published)

The purpose of this research paper is to examine Bond’s Lear in relation to which it “stands to Shakespeare’s great original” (Smith 194). Both plays deal with the issues of political and economic power and investigates the relation of aggression and violence present within nature of human beings when it comes to their struggle over supremacy and rule. This paper focuses tendency of ruling individuals to assert aggression and violence and research work tends to explore both plays in the light of Bond’s Preface to his version of Lear

Keywords: Bond's Lear, King Lear, Society, Violence, and political struggle, economic power

Leadership Conflicts among Students on Nigerian University Campuses: The Experience of the University of Calabar, Calabar- Nigeria. (Published)

This study examined the factors that give rise to conflicts among students in their pursuit of leadership on the campus of the University of Calabar (UNICAL). Descriptive survey design was used and through stratified random sampling and simple random sampling techniques, a sample size of 250 was derived.  Two research questions were raised and a questionnaire tagged, Student Leadership Conflict Scale (SLCS) formed the data collection instrument.  Accruing data was analysed using frequencies and percentages. Results indicated (i) high level of conflict among students arising from their pursuit of leadership (ii) financial rewards and other benefits attached to leadership positions as the main motivators of the conflicts experienced.  To this end, it was recommended that allowances and other benefits of student leaders be reduced drastically to make it less lucrative and attractive to the greedy grabbing ones among the students.

Keywords: Conflict, Leadership, Student Associations, Student Unionism, Violence

Prevention of Discrimination and Violence in Grassroot Sport in School and Sports Clubs (Published)

The purpose of the study is to clarify the various national contexts and characteristics in the manifestations of violence, racism and discrimination in grassroots sport in schools and sport clubs. It aims to identify good practices and innovative approaches that are applied at regional, national and international levels that will help the PE teachers end coaches to deal effectively with violence, racism, lack of tolerance. The research was conducted during June September 2015 through a focus-group discussion and interview with key experts in physical education and sport. The interviews outline that the poverty and other kinds of differences like the ethnicity, race and culture are risky factors provoking discrimination in sport should be approbated. In summary, the needs of the teachers and the coaches refer to possibilities and conditions to have institutional mechanisms, which can provide them professional support, and cooperative social measures for dealing with discrimination.

Keywords: Coaches, Discrimination, Grassroots sports, PE teachers, School, Violence

Black Militant Theatre: Purificatory Rituals or Liberatory Violence? (Published)

Amiri  Baraka’s  pre-nationalist  and  nationalist  plays  such  as  Dutchman  and  Experimental  Death  Unit  # 1  largely  incorporates  scenes  of  murder  and  violence.  The cadaverous permeates. Baraka’s stage.  There  is  a  whole  sacrificial  system  that  determines  the  characters’ ultimate  destinies  and  lives.  This  mechanism  operates  not  merely  to  bring  death  to  those  who  betray  the  national  black  liberation  cause,  but  also  to  castigate  those  holders  of  the  slave  mentality and  chastise  the  assimilationists  who  hide  behind  a  white  mask.  This  sacrificial  mechanism  functions  as  a  generator  of  purification  to  cleanse  the  black community  from  the  vestiges  of  black  docility. In  the  Marxist  plays,  violence  and  murder  take  the  form  of  political  assassination.  A  play  such  as  The  Motion  of  History  displays  the  dynamics  of  political  struggle  that  conditions  the  kind  of  murder  or  acts  of  killings.  Whereas  in  the  nationalist  plays  murder  is  effected  for  purificatory  goals,  in  the  Marxist  plays  the  intersection  between  political  struggle  and  the  official  repression  of  the  state  determines  the  shape  of  physical  elimination  for  political  motives.  The  neutralization  of  political  opponents  assumes  that  murder  is  simply  a  means  of  exclusion  from  the  political  arena  and  restoration  of  political  and  social  stability.  Because  agitation  is detrimental  to  social  peace  and  political  order,  systemic  violence  takes  a  bloody  dimension  and  approximates  bloodshed.  This  paper  seeks  to  highlight  the  prevalence  and,  in  Frantz  Fanon’s  phrase,  the  instrumentality  of  violence  as  an  absolute  praxis  in  Baraka’s  dramatic  works.  Violence marshals then a new equation of asserted subjectivity. 

Keywords: Murder, Victimization, Violence, oppression., struggle

GENDER DISCRIMINATION AGAINST PAKISTANI WOMEN IN “BOL”; A STUDY OF CLASH BETWEEN CULTURE AND RELIGION. (Published)

This paper aims to study the issue of gender discrimination against Pakistani women presented in a film Bol directed by Mansoor. Feminist theory is used as major theoretical framework for the present research. The discourse is analyzed through qualitative method and descriptive analysis. Kristeva’s feministic assumptions regarding ‘Gender Discrimination’ are implied in theoretical background. Her notion of abjection as an explanation for oppression and discrimination helps to shed light on the oppression and subordination of women and man chauvinism which is strictly prohibited in Islam. Moreover this paper will discuss about the psychological and sexual violence.

Keywords: Discrimination, Feminism, Islam, Violence, oppression.

READING YOUTH-: VIOLENCE AND IDEOLOGICAL PROPAGANDA IN SELECTED SOUTHERN NIGERIAN PLAYS (Published)

The media’s capacity to manipulate information and create stereotypes can negatively affect young audiences who emulate its aggressive behavioral models. The rate of violence and aggression among Niger Delta youths, who form the core of the militant resistance in the area, can be attributed to the influence of socio-cultural factors of corruption, cultural ideologies and narrative myths created by the media. This essay examines the manner certain plays written by Southern Nigerian playwrights serve as media extensions by acting as if they are creative depictions of the marginalized Delta youth’s social reality while in actuality these works mediate personal objectives that further engender youth violence. The work analyzes the generative ability of the narrative as an action creating new identities and stereotypes. Youth violence, while being anti-social in nature, appears justified in the reference plays which have psychotic young heroes that glamorize violent agitation as an existentialist strategy. The essay surmises that propagandist literature can become operational when the author deliberately gives prominence to certain details while relegating other necessary facts that shape perception and identity

Keywords: Militancy, Niger-Delta, Priming, Propaganda, Violence, Youth

INVESTIGATION INTO THE INFLUENCES OF GOVERNANCE FAILURE, CORRUPTION, VIOLENCE AND OTHER IMPORTANT ISSUES, IN THE CHALLENGES OF THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT OF NIGERIA (Published)

As a follow-up to an earlier paper on the socio-economic environment of Nigeria, in which a large number of challenges are highlighted for this socio-economic environment, this investigation is carried out, to find out the extent to which the issues of governance failure, corruption, violence and a number of other issues, are implicated in these challenges. The investigation reveals that the trio of governance failure, corruption and violence, are greatly implicated in the challenges. A large number of other important issues, such as deficit in values, deficit in education and deficit in appropriate attitudes, are also implicated to a lesser extent, in the challenges. The paper is concluded with a recommendation that all these issues need to be urgently attended to, if Nigeria is to attain sustainable development, within the first quarter of this century.

Keywords: Challenges, Corruption, Governance Failure, Nigeria, Socio-Economic Environment, Violence

VICTIMS OF VIOLENCE: AFRICAN WOMEN AND THE CONSEQUENCES OF WAR, AN APRAISAL OF VIOLENCE IN THE SIERRA LEONE CIVIL WAR (Review Completed - Accepted)

Women in all ages in different countries have been victims of violence, particularly violence emanating from wars. In Africa, women have had to contend with rape, loneliness, shame and rejection among others. The Sierra Leone Civil War brought to the attention of the world the bestiality of the male folk. Although it affected all members of the Sierra Leonean society, its effects on women were more devastating. This paper examines the violation of the rights of women in the Sierra Leone Civil War; the role played by the rebel movement, government forces and civil defence corps in gender related abuses; and find out why women are more vulnerable to rights violation in armed conflicts particularly in Sierra Leone. The methodology adopted was based on secondary sources. Our findings are that women were raped, brutalized and murdered and in some cases abducted and used as sex slaves. The study recommended that perpetrators of war crimes particularly against women should be severely punished to deter others.

Keywords: Gender, Sierra Leone, Violence, War, Women, conflicts.

INVESTIGATION INTO THE INFLUENCES OF THE ISSUES OF GOVERNANCE FAILURE, CORRUPTION AND VIOLENCE, ON THE CHALLENGES OF THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT OF NIGERIA (Review Completed - Accepted)

As a follow-up to an earlier paper on the natural environment of Nigeria, in which a large number of challenges are highlighted for this natural environment, this investigation is conducted, to find out the extent to which issues of governance failure, corruption and violence, are implicated in these challenges. The investigation reveals that the three important issues are implicated in the challenges to a great extent. A large number of other issues are also implicated, to a relatively smaller extent. Prominent among these issues are those of ineffective laws, poor implementation of the laws, ignorance among the people, lack of environmental education and appropriate environmental ethics. Other issues that are also implicated include the culture of impunity among the people, inadequate political will by people in government, inadequate monitoring and surveillance of this natural environment. The paper recommends an aggressive mission to reform governance in Nigeria and the need to curb corruption and violence, which are also taking their toll on the natural environment of the country

Keywords: Challenges, Corruption, Governance Failure, Natural Environment, Nigeria, Violence

UNEMPLOYMENT AND POVERTY IN NIGERIA: A LINK TO NATIONAL INSECURITY (Published)

The majority of Nigeria population, the poor people in affluent society, is enmeshed in the net of poverty. The Nigerian government seem to have failed in its contractual obligation to respect and sustain its social contract with the people. There is a seemingly total collapse of social security, increase in unemployment rate and consequently inbreed of youth restiveness. This study sets out to investigate the relationship between unemployment, poverty and insecurity of lives and properties in the country. The primary objective of this article is to ascertain whether the increased wave of violence in Nigeria is as a result of unemployment and poverty. The study underscores that unemployment and poverty are universal phenomena, not necessarily a peculiar characteristic of any particular segment of the society. The research revealed that unemployment and poverty have direct link to security challenges in Nigeria. There is need for a radical reform in the areas of skill acquisition centres, agricultural development scheme for creation of employment opportunities and holistic restructuring of peace building mechanisms to curb these social ills and reposition the drifting nation to a more purposeful track.

Keywords: Insecurity of Lives and Properties, Poverty, Unemployment, Violence