Tag Archives: Vegetables

Assessment of Copper and Zinc contamination through vehicular emission on vegetables growing near road side (Published)

Vegetables are important sources of many nutrient, including vitamins, dietary fibre, folate (folic acid), and minerals and have beneficial antioxidative effects. Heavy metals like Cu and Zn can easily enter in our body through consumption of vegetables contaminated with such metals. The toxic levels of the Zinc and Copper in leafy vegetables growing near road side fields were highly dependent on vehicular exhaust and non-exhaust emissions. Industrial emissions and the frequency of brake use and vehicles coming to a complete stop were additional factors that affected the contamination levels of Zn and Cu in leafy vegetables. The concrete highway also had higher contamination levels of such heavy metals than the asphalt highway. Vehicle speed was also a Major factor contributing to the contamination of higher level of Cu and Zn in road side vegetation of heavy traffic areas. The significant level of Cu in vegetables growing in road sides areas may be due to high rate of brake abrasion from the vehicles and the levels of zinc in vegetables is due to tyre abrasion from vehicles as zinc oxide is used as a vulcanizing agent in making tyre rubber. The main aim of this review article is to determine the level of Cu and Zn in leafy vegetables collected from road side (heavy traffic) areas.

Keywords: Copper, Heavy Metals, Vegetables, Zinc

Les pratiques d’utilisation des pesticides par les maraîchers au Bénin : perspectives sociologiques (Published)

The populations of Benin, a country in the West Africa, have incorporated vegetable products into their diets since several decades. To satisfy the growing demand and to cope with the various factors of crop losses, the country’s truck farmers resort to pesticides. The objective of this research is to make an inventory of the practices of pesticide use by truck farmers in Benin. For so doing, an interdisciplinary sociological reflection has been conducted. A methodological approach focusing on investigations (interviews, questionnaires and documentary review) was carried out nearby 245 truck farmers distributed throughout the whole national territory. The analysis of these different data allowed us to make several observations.Although market gardening is practiced throughout the national territory, a strong inconstancy appears in the production from year to year. The phytosanitary products based on Lambda Cyhalothrin, very numerous on the markets, are widely used by the truck farmers of Benin. The majorities of chemical pesticides identified are not permitted and are aggravating sources of risk factors for the use of chemicals. The lack of control over the distribution channels by the State favors this situation. Truck farmers often omit to protect themselves before the chemical pesticides use.The numerous sensitizations on the risks linked to these products have led to changes in behavior towards the self-consumption of organic production but the marketing of non-organic products.

Keywords: Agriculture, Benin, Vegetables, fruits, market gardening, pesticides

Effects of Nutrition Education among Pregnant Women using Fruits and Vegetables for the achievement of MDG5 in Odogbolu LGA, Ogun State (Published)

Background: Nutrition education being a component of health education is propitious to create awareness on how to source, prepare, combine and use food resources for promoting good health among all groups of human beings; especially pregnant women who need adequate nutrition for their physiological needs and improve the health of both the mother and fetus.  Studies have suggested that women have low dietary intake of fruits and vegetables. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are a framework globally agreed for measuring development, progress, and poverty reduction through focusing efforts on achieving significant measureable improvement in people’s lives. One of the components of MDG5 is nutrition in pregnancy; this component is the main focus of this study. Method: a quasi-experimental study for quantitative method adopting pre-and post test control experimental analysis was used while 194 pregnant women were purposively selected from 11 randomly selected antenatal clinics in Odogbolu local government area to participate. The nutrition intervention was for 3 months. FGD together with structured-validated questionnaire administered before and after the intervention were used to collect data. ANCOVA was used to test the two hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level.Result: There were significant effects of the intervention on the knowledge (F (2.174) = 1554.466, P <.05) and attitude (F (2.134) = 19.866, P <.05) of the women on fruits and vegetables consumption. The findings revealed a positive effect of the intervention; the participants were relatively aware of the importance of fruit and vegetables consumption in pregnancy after the intervention. Conclusion: The nutrition education intervention appears to have changed the attitude of pregnant women after the post test evaluation. Pregnant women apparently consumed more fruits and vegetables than they were doing before the intervention. Therefore, intensive health education should continuously be given to pregnant women on the value of fruit and vegetable.

Keywords: Education, Intervention, Nutrition, Pregnant Women, Vegetables


Nine medicinally important vegetables consumed in Ekiti State, Nigeria were analyzed to determine their proximate and phytochemical contents using standard analytical procedure. These vegetables are Corchorus. olitorious L., Cnidoscolus acontifolius Mill., Vernonia amygdalina L., Cucurbita pepo L., Ocimum gratissimum L., Senecio biafrae Olive & Heirn., Moringa oleifera L., Telfaria occidentalis Hook. F. and Hibiscus asper Hook. F.. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of reducing sugar in all the plant samples analyzed. Saponins and tannins were discovered in four of the plant samples. Seven of the nine plants have philobatannins and cardiac glycosides while alkaloids and steroids were detected in two samples. Anthroquinine was absent in all the vegetable plants. Quatitative phytochemical analysis further revealed reducing sugar, tannins, flavonoids, saponins alkanoids and phenols composition in different proportions, with values ranging from 141.88 mg/100g to 210.07 mg/100g, 44.05 mg/100g to 70.89 mg/100g, 11.71 mg/100g to 41.08 mg/100g, 0.76 mg/100g to 5.88 mg/100g, 163.77 mg/100g to 269.86 mg/100g, and 110.43 mg/100g to 116.68 mg/100g respectively. The percentage proximate values for moisture content, ash, crude fat, crude protein crude fibre and carbohydrate content in the leaves ranged from 50.20% to 88.30%, 7.67% to 10.17%, 1.53% to 4.99%, 13.70% to 24.90%, 10.10% to 21.81% and 40.99% to 53.04% respectively. The results of the study lend credence to the significance of the nine vegetables in the treatments and prevention of various ailments and diseases. Furthermore, high protein, fibre, carbohydrates and low fat contents justify their nutritional importance in human daily diet.

Keywords: Phytochemical, Proximate, Vegetables, medicinal plants


The application of conservation technique at the farmers level has shown initiatives of the farmers to apply land conservation techniques based on local knowledge and understanding of the farmers about the ecological process that relates to erosion and land management, so that a part of the farmers apply the conservation technique. Objective of the research was to analyze factors that affect implementation of the conservation farming operation. This research was conducted at Kampung Enam District, East Tarakan Subdistrict, Tarakan, from July to August 2013. Results of the research showed that implementation of the conservation farming operation of the farmers in Tarakan were high and medium levels. Factors, such as knowledge on conservation technique, age, duration of the farming operation, numbers of the family’s member, and the arable land have significant effect on the implementation level of conservation farming. However, knowledge about the importance of conservation farming and formal education have insignificant effect.

Keywords: Application Level, Conservation Farming Operation, Vegetables