Perceptions of Risk and Risk Management Strategies: Identifying Alternative Strategies to Promote Smallholder Vegetable Production in Cambodia (Published)
Cambodia’s vegetable sector is typically poorly managed and susceptible to a multitude of shocks preventing producers from meeting consumer demand. Thus, consumers rely on imported vegetables from Vietnam and Thailand. The government of Cambodia is intent upon capitalizing on this demand for domestic vegetables and has shown support for farmers and marketers shifting toward the vegetable sector. However, the government must work quickly if it wishes to assist its growers in capturing this market. Farming is inherently risky as farmers are faced with numerous exogenous factors that can alter yields and farm income. The implementation of risk management strategies tailored to the risk-taking behavior of the farming population can significantly reduce the impacts of these exogenous shocks. This study assesses existing vegetable grower’s risk management strategies, their knowledge and perceptions and find that the accessibility of producer groups, savings groups, crop insurance, and contract farming can greatly mitigate the risks deemed most significant by growers. These strategies will likely exhibit high rates of adoption and can significantly reduce risks and farm profit losses. Finally, we recommend the establishment of a crop insurance program by the government as well as an overall policy environment in which contract farming can thrive in order to support vegetable growers and meet the countries growing vegetable demand.
Contributions of Cooperative Societies to Vegetable Production among Women Farmers in Ibarapa North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria (Published)
The study examined the contribution of cooperative societies to vegetable production among women in Ibarapa North Local government area of Oyo State. A multistage sampling procedure was used to select 120 women vegetable farmers from 10 villages. Data was collected with questionnaires and interview guide, data were analysed using descriptive statistics such as frequency counts, mean and percentages for specific objectives, chi-square statistics was used to draw inferences. The study found out that the mean age of women was 43.7years, more than half (66.6%) took farming as major occupation and mean household size was 3.5 persons. Average years spent in vegetable production was 16.6years and majority (76.7%) of the women cultivates about 3 acres of land and has spent about 14 years in vegetable production. women cultivate different types of vegetable and also belong to more than one cooperative society. The women also submitted that cooperative societies have helped them in diverse ways among which are financial assistance (92.2%) marketing of vegetable (92.5%) and in the purchase of input. Major constraints faced by women in the operation of the cooperative societies they belong were untimely access to fund (55.8%), inability to refund loan by members (49.1%) and mismanagement of fund by executives (49%). Chi-square result show a significant relationship between education (x=10.619, p=0.031), years spent in vegetable production (x=38.961, P=0.000) and contribution of cooperatives to vegetable production. The study therefore recommends that women should be encouraged to take loans and be educated on how to refund loans with ease as this will help increase their production level and improve their well-being.