Arrhenius-Type Relationship of Viscosity as a Function of Temperature for Mustard and Cotton Seed Oils (Published)
The knowledge and evaluation of transport behaviors of fluids are very important in heat and mass flow. In this study, we adopted a statistical technique for regression analysis and statistical correlation tests. An equation modeling the relationship between the two parameters of viscosity Arrhenius-type equation, such as the Arrhenius energy (Ea) or the pre-exponential factor (A) was used. In addition, we introduce two other parameters; the Arrhenius temperature (T) and Arrhenius activation temperature (T*) to enrich the discussion. The viscosity data from two vegetable oils at different temperature ranges gives excellent statistical results. In addition, the model in this case is very useful for engineering data and permits the estimation of one non-available parameter when the other is available. The Activation energy Ea, Entropic (pre-exponential) factor A, Arrhenius temperature TA and the Arrhenius activation temperature for the mustard oil were observed to be 374.37381 J/mole, 12.39260595 cP, -17.89797783 oC, 45.051 oC respectively while Activation energy Ea, Entropic (pre-exponential) factor A, Arrhenius temperature TA and the Arrhenius activation temperature for the cotton seed oil are respectively 451.90611 J/mole, 8.210386507 cP, -25.8292961 oC, 54.381 oC . The coefficients of regressions (R2) for the graph of the natural log of viscosity versus reciprocal of temperature (Figures 2 and 4) for the mustard oil and cotton seed oil are 0.9996 and 0.9996 respectively. Since the correlation coefficient is the measure of how well a collection of data points can be modeled by a line, we can hence conclude that the natural log of the viscosity of both seed oil samples versus the inverse of their respective temperatures have a very good fit.
Effect of Mycodeteriorative Fungi on the Vegetable Oil from Kernels of Irvingia Gabonensis Sold In Parts of Nigeria (Published)
Sanitary survey was conducted on the kernels of Irvingia gabonensis sold within the four ecological zones of Nigeria. The aim was to ascertain the effect of mycodeteriorative fungi on the dietary quality of vegetable oil from kernels of Irvingia gabonensis. The study screened for presence of lipid degrading saprotrophs as well as ascertained the quantity of vegetable oil and free fatty acid components using Microbiological and Biochemical methods. Results showed presence of saprotrophs at varying frequencies; Aspergillus flavus, from 17.61±0.25% (Abuja) to 28.33±0.02% (Kebbi); Aspergillus niger, from 14.38±5.07% (Imo) to 23.33±1.05% (Lagos). Fusarium moniliforme, from 13.01±2.89% (Bauchi) to 22.00±2.14% (Lagos). Lasiodiplodia theobromae, from 9.64±1.34% (Bauchi) to 24.00±2.36% (Imo). Penicillium italicum, from 5.00±8.31% (Benue) to 13.21±6.01% (Kebbi). Rhizopus stolonifer, from 11.00±7.32% (Lagos) to 28.35±2.37% (Abuja). These isolates were confirmed to be associated with the lipid degradation of the kernel of Irvingia gabonensis reducing the percentage weight of vegetable oil content from 61.81±0.02(control) to 30.52± 6.14% (study locations) and increasing quantity of free fatty acids from 0.511±10.18 (control) to 6.28±0.05 % (study locations). Strict sanitary supervision of food wares is advocated.Lipid degradation technology of these mycobiota can be exploited by cosmetic industry to improve free fatty acid contents of low fat oils.
The study consist of two groups, untreated control of twenty male rats feed on normal diets while treated young and adult 40 male rats feed solely on vegetable oil for six months during treatment. Some animals diet especially young ones. Grossly, macroscopically and microscopically studies were done, treated male rats showed rough greasy hair macroscopically in larged pale yellow liver discoloration. Microscopically, varying degree of vacuolation in hepatocyte associated with renal pathological lesion. Also showed thinning of epiderms reduce hair follicals and atrophic sepaceous gland in the skin, and atrophy of skeletal muscle associated with interstatial odema, and showed vacuolation in stomach (glandular region), small intestine and testis. also showed congestion and thickening bronchiolar epithelium.