Tag Archives: Varieties

Varietal Evaluation of the Chemical Composition, Field Performance and Yield of Some Improved Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Varieties in Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)

This study examined eleven improved cassava varieties that could be recommended to farmers for higher productivity in order to meet the high demand for cassava produce in the sub region. The eleven cassava varieties include TMS 01/1371, TMS 96/1632, TMS 98/0510, TME 419, TMS 98/0581, TMS 01/1368, TMS 07/0593, TMS 98 / 0505, TMS 30572, TMS 92/0326 and TMS 95/0289. The field performance evaluated include: plant height, leaf number, number branched, fresh tuber yield and dry weight. Immediately after harvest, the tubers were analyzed for chemical composition such as hydrogen cyanide, percentage moisture content, fibre and starch for each of the varieties. Results of the study showed significant (P<0.05) variation on the performances of the various improve cassava varieties studied. The top seven high yielding varieties among the studied varieties intense of fresh tuber yield which is a product of high growth performance as revealed by the results of this experiment include TMS 01/1371 > TMS 01/1368 > TME 419 > TMS 98/0505 > TMS 98/0581 > TMS 30572 and TMS 92/0326 in decreasing order. Similarly, low cyanide content and early high dry matter content such as starch and fibre evaluation of the studied varieties significantly (P<0.05) revealed TME 419 as the best performed followed by TMS 98/0505 > TMS 30572 > TMS 01/1368 > TMS 01/1371 and TMS 07/0593 in decreasing order. These varieties could be recommended for rapid stem multiplication and distribution to farmers for cultivation and consumption in Rivers State and Nigeria at large to increase the quantity of cassava products. With these selected improved varieties, adequate agronomic practices and processing, cassava yield and product quality could be bettered with less land use and labor.

 

Keywords: Chemical composition., Growth Performance, Varieties, Yield, cassava

Growth Performance of Eleven Improved Cassava Varieties and their susceptibility to Some Insect Pests and Diseases in Humid Tropics, Rivers State (Published)

Study on the agronomic evaluation and disease resistance of eleven improved cassava varieties was carried out in Rivers State University Teaching and Research Farm in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The eleven varieties assessed are TMS 30572, TMS 98/0510, TMS 98/0581, TMS 98/0505, TMS 92/0326, TME 419, TMS 01/1371, TMS 01/1368, TMS 07/0593, TMS 95/0289 and TMS 96/1632 were evaluated for plant height, leaf number, number of branches, number of flowers, insect infestation and disease incidence. The plant height of the cassava varieties revealed that eight varieties (TMS 01/1371, TMS 01/1368, TMS 30572, TME 419, TMS 98/0505, TMS 96/1632, TMS 98/0510 and TMS 07/0593) are tall varieties while TMS 98/0581, TMS 92/0326 and TMS 95/0289 are short varieties. The highest leaf number was recorded in TMS 01/1371 but the tall varieties like TMS 01/1368, TMS 96/1632 and TME 419 had low leaf number. TMS 98/0581, TMS 92/0326 and TMS 95/0289 were shown to have scanty leaves. TMS 01/1371 was significantly higher (P<0.05) than other varieties in plant height, leaf number and branches. Four varieties flowered namely TMS 07/0593, TMS 01/1371, TMS 30572 and TMS 98/0505. TMS 30572 and TMS 92/0326 were highly susceptible to both African Cassava Mosaic and Xanthomona sp. (Bacterial blight diseases) while TMS 95/0289, TMS 01/1368 and TMS 98/0505 were less susceptible to African Cassava Mosaic virus disease alone. Insect infestations (White fly: Bemisia sp. and Mealybugs: Phenacoccus sp.) on the tested varieties were significantly minimal though five cultivars (TMS 98/0505, TMS 96/1632, TMS 98/0510, TMS 98/0581 and TMS 95/0289) were completely resistant. Therefore, there is urgent need to withdraw the varieties that are susceptible, and use more of the varieties that are disease resistant for high crop yield, breeding and higher productivity.

Keywords: Resistance, Varieties, cassava, susceptibility and agronomic assessment.

Field Evaluation of Some Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) Varieties in the Humid Tropics, Rivers State (Published)

A study on the suitability of seven different Okra Varieties (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) was conducted at the Rivers State University Teaching and Research Farm Nkpolu-Oruworukwo, Port Harcourt. The seven Okra varieties comprise of five exotic and two landraces (Kirikou, Madison, Clemson Spineless, Hire, Sahari, Ogbami and Chuku-chuku) were planted in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with five replications. The results obtained showed that Madison variety had the highest (P<0.05) mean plant height followed by Clemson spineless variety. Clemson Spineless and Madison varieties significantly (P<0.05) matured earlier at 10 weeks after planting. Clemson Spineless variety consequently produced higher (P<0.05) yield of okra (29.13 t/ha) and supported higher okra growth, number of leaves and leaf area than other studied varieties. A positive correlation was established between total weight of fresh okro and 8th weeks leaf area (r = 0.85); total insect count and 8th weeks leaf area (r = 0.95) respectively. There were significant differences (P<0.05) on the insect pest damage on the leaves of the studied okra varieties. The result established that the Okra flea beetle Podagrica spp. remain the major insect pest of Okra in the study area causing very severe damage (defoliation) on the leaves of the tested exotic okra varieties. The experimental results however revealed higher susceptibility of the two land races (Ogbami and Chuku-chuku) to waterlogged environment due to excessive heavy rainfall. This experiment therefore recommends the cultivation of Clemson Spineless, Sahari and Madison okra varieties to our farmers for higher and better Okra production.

Keywords: Okra, Varieties, Weeks after Planting (WAP)., exotic, landraces

Varietal Resistance of Sunflower and Okra Bio-Primed Seeds Against Root Infecting Fungi and Establishment of Crop Plants (Published)

Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) varieties like OH-152, Arka anamika and unknown variety and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) varieties like S-278, Hysun-39 and unknown variety after bio-priming with leaf extracts of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile Sapindus mukorossi (L.) and microbial antagonists (Trichoderma harzianum and Rhizobium meliloti) at different time intervals (10, 20 minutes) were screened against root infecting fungal pathogens (Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium spp) and growth of crop plants. Results obtained showed that among all the three varieties of sunflower, variety S-278 after bio-priming with A. nilotica leaf extract for 10 minutes and T. harzianum conidial suspension for 20 minutes was found to be most effective for the establishment of plants and completely control the colonization of M. phaseolina followed by Hysun-39 and unknown variety. Whereas in case of okra, variety OH-152 after bio-priming with A. nilotica leaf extract, T. harzianum and R. meliloti cell/conidal suspension for 10 minutes was recorded to be most effective for the complete inhibition of M. phaseolina and significant elevation of growth of plants followed by A. anamika and unknown varieties

Keywords: Bio-priming, Okra, Root Rot Fungi, Varieties, sunflower

Cooking And Physicochemical Properties Of Five Rice Varieties Produced In Ohaukwu Local Government Area (Published)

Four local rice varieties grown and processed in Ohaukwu and One foreign rice varieties (caprice gold) were analyzed for their cooking, chemical and physical properties. Cooking time differed with variety (p<0.05) and the ranged between 17-23 minutes. Volume expansion ratio varied from 1.67-3.67cm3. Caprice, Faro44 and Faro 15 had higher volume expansion ratio than the other varieties (P<0.05). Gelatinization time varied with variety and the range between 4-11 minutes. Caprice took a longer time to gelatinize and Faro 14 and IRR8 the shortest time. The other varieties differ (p<0.05) in their gelatinization time. Grain elongation during cooking, amount of water evaporating during cooking and solid in cooking water ranged between 0.18-0.38m, 19-42%, 0.02-0.64(g). The values for the amylose ranged between 7.6-37.2% and amylopectin ranged between 69.8-79.8%. The range of physical properties from all the varieties were, length 0.595 to 0.753m, width 0.217 to 0.287m, length/ width ration 2.188 to 3.470mm.

Keywords: Rice, Time, Varieties, cooking, gelatinization

Taxonomic Investigation of Four Varieties of Mangifera Using Micro-Anatomical Features (Published)

Taxonomic investigation of four varieties of Mangifera was undertaken in this study. The aim was to explore the use of foliar micro-anatomical traits in resolving the lingering systematic challenges associated with this fruit crop. Leaves of four varieties of Mangifera (Big-no-fibre, Julie, Opioro and Small-fibre varieties) were collected across various locations in the North Central part of Nigeria. Eighty (80) permanent slides were prepared from the foliar abaxial and adaxial surfaces following standard microscopic practices. Micrometry was carried out using the calibrated ocular and stage micrometers mounted on the compound microscope. From each specimen, thirteen (13) characters were examined and analysed. Mean values of all characters were computed and analysed using the SPSS software (20.0 versions). Pearson’s correlation matrix was generated to ascertain the association among the characters. Dendrogram was constructed using the Ward’s method to classify the varieties on the basis of their similarities and differences. From the result obtained, the Julie mango had the longest epidermal cell length of 57µm (adaxial) followed by the Small-fibre type with 55.3µm (abaxial). Stomata and guard cell displayed huge qualitative and quantitative variation among the varieties. Comparison of the abaxial surfaces revealed that the Big-fibre variety had the highest stomatal index (78%) followed by the Opioro variety (62%). Conversely, the Small-fibre recorded the longest guard cells surrounding the stomata (44µm) while the Big-no-fibre had the shortest (30.3µm). Correlation revealed that SLD and ELA are positively correlated by +0.996. From the dendrogram, the Big-no-fibre was a distinct variety clearly delimited from the rest, but the Julie and Opioro types were more closely related than others. On this note, both the Big-no-fibre and Small-fibre may be assigned different varietal nomenclatures under Mangifera indica and solve the challenges associated with the common names. Micro anatomic features taxonomic audit of mangifera varieties successfully investigated in this study is maiden and novel. This is reported for the first time.

Keywords: Dendrogram, Mangifera indica, Micro anatomy, Micrometry, Varieties

COOKING AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF FIVE RICE VARIETIES PRODUCED IN OHAUKWU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA (Published)

Four local rice varieties grown and processed in Ohaukwu and One foreign rice varieties (caprice gold) were analyzed for their cooking, chemical and physical properties. Cooking time differed with variety (p<0.05) and the ranged between 17-23 minutes. Volume expansion ratio varied from 1.67-3.67cm3. Caprice, Faro44 and Faro 15 had higher volume expansion ratio than the other varieties (P<0.05). Gelatinization time varied with variety and the range between 4-11 minutes. Caprice took a longer time to gelatinize and Faro 14 and IRR8 the shortest time. The other varieties differ (p<0.05) in their gelatinization time. Grain elongation during cooking, amount of water evaporating during cooking and solid in cooking water ranged between 0.18-0.38m, 19-42%, 0.02-0.64(g). The values for the amylose ranged between 7.6-37.2% and amylopectin ranged between 69.8-79.8%. The range of physical properties from all the varieties were, length 0.595 to 0.753m, width 0.217 to 0.287m, length/ width ration 2.188 to 3.470mm.

Keywords: Rice, Time, Varieties, cooking, gelatinization

Evaluation of Soybean Varieties (Glycine max L meril), for Adaptation to Two Locations of Rainforest Zone of Delta State (Published)

Field experiments were conducted in two locations of rainforest zones (Asaba and Okpe-Isoko) to evaluate the adaptation of ten soybean varieties to this agro-ecological zone. The varieties were TGX1904-6F, TGX1910-11F, TGX1910-15F, TGX1910-10F, TGX1908-8F, TGX1905-2F, TGX1910-1F, TGX1910-8F, TGX1910-6F AND TGX1905-5F. The parameters collected include germination percentage, plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, fresh weight of plant, dry weight of plant, number of flowers, number of pod per plant, number of seeds per pod, and dry seed weight. The growth parameters were determined at 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks after planting), while the yield data were determined at harvest. The results showed significant differences at (P<0.05) among the varieties for some parameters assessed. TGX1910-8F, TGX1905-2F and TGX1904-6F had the highest number of flowers (68.3), number of pods (26.3) and first to attain maturity (106.6 days) respectively. TGX1910-8F performed better in dry weight of seeds per hectare (2.9t/ha), followed by TGX1910-15F (2.8t/ha). Also, varieties TGX 1910-8F, TGX1905-2F and TGX1904-6F had the highest mean values when compared to other varieties for total dry weight. It is therefore recommended that TGX1910-8F and TGX1910-15F which had higher yields be adopted for cultivation in this agro-ecological zone.

Keywords: Adaptation and Proteins, Ecology, Soybeans, Varieties