Tag Archives: variability

Variability of properties of Koroama and Niger Delta University Teaching and Research farm soils from the Niger Delta Ecological Zone of Nigeria (Published)

As agricultural land in the Niger Delta area is dwindling due to inherent lack of dry and relatively well drained land and increase in population and competition from land for urbanization and industrialization, the need to monitor and manage the limited available land for agriculture becomes very paramount. This study seeks to evaluate the variability of properties of Koroama (KRM) and Niger Delta University (NDU) farm soils on the Nun River plain and the implications for soil management. Soils varied morphologically, including soil colour, mottling and sequential arrangement of horizons within and between physiographic units and between the two locations, KRM1 showing evidence of anthropogenic influence. pH was the least variable characteristics while organic C, total N and available P were highly variable (CV= ≥35) in all the physiographic units. Calcium dominated the exchange complexes of the two locations, showing varying degree of variability while Mg and K were highly variable (CV= ≥35) in all physiographic units of Koroama. Exchangeable Al, acidity, TEB and CEC exhibited varying degree of variability in the different physiographic units of the two locations, reflecting differences in the source of parent materials and possibly, the degree of hydromorphism. The variability in morphological, physical and chemical characteristics reflected the effects of flooding, source of parent materials and the degree of hydromorphism, all of which dictated the pedo-chemical environment and should be considered in managing the soils.

Keywords: Flooding, Niger-Delta, hydromorphism, variability

The Effect of Climate Change on Human Health in Damaturu (Published)

The frequency and intensity of rainfall and temperature health related incidences are expanding from micro-scale to global scale with intensive direct and indirect impacts. This study assessed the effect of temperature and rainfall variability on human health in Damaturu, Yobe State from 2009 to 2018, which was achieved by determining the annual trends of temperature and rainfall occurrence in relation to diseases incidence in the study area.  Multi-stage stratified systematic random sampling technique was adopted. Based on the National water rehabilitation house numbering in Damaturu, the study area was stratified into three strata where two communities from each of strata were selected using systematic random sampling. Data was collected using questionnaire, meteorological records of temperature and rainfall occurrences and hospital records of diseases incidences. The findings of the research established that rainfall and temperature variability are significantly associated with the prevalence of seasonal diseases incidences in Damaturu. Malaria incidences have high correlation with rainfall and temperature variability at significant level of 0.033 whereas measles and diarrhoea indicate a positive correlation. These indicated that about 38%, 14% and 8% of variances in malaria, diarrhoea and measles incidences respectively are associated with temperature and rainfall fluctuation in Damaturu.  The combination of higher temperatures, prolonged dry season and floods coupled with scarce water resources and poor sanitation made traditional and newly established settlements more vulnerable to outbreaks of diarrhoeal and malaria incidences in Damaturu town. The study recommended that meteorological agencies in collaboration with health agencies should develop a proactive solution that will provide a timely and accurate forecasting and projection of vulnerability of the population in Damaturu to climate sensitive diseases and infection.

Keywords: Rainfall, Temperature, disease incidence, variability

Parliamentarian Institutional Reforms: Lessons from Sri Lanka (Published)

With the introduction of semi-presidentialism in the 1978 Constitution, the Sri Lankan parliament became a minor actor within the constitutional framework. While the Constitution’s Nineteenth Amendment tried to establish several constitutional centres of responsibility, the parliament’s role remained minor. Simultaneous elections to the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies have been proposed by the NITI Aayog and other government institutions in India to reduce the disruptions caused by frequent elections, which include high costs, administrative burdens, communal violence, policy manipulation, and so on. I argue for the necessity of additional reform to change the parliament from a peripheral to a core role in the constitutional framework, using the example of German limited parliamentarianism. Reforms should attempt to constitutionalize parties, enhance the parliament’s institutional powers, and ensure that the parliament’s composition is regulated. Proposals are founded on the incorrect premise that simultaneity is dependent on these processes. Simultaneity may be adopted without incurring accountability costs, according to our findings. In order to attain government stability, they make the system inflexible, undermine democratic and federalist ideals, and diminish executive responsibility to the legislature, undermining a key tenet.

Keywords: Legislature, executive accountability, knowledge valorization, parliamentarian democracy, variability

Gender Differences in English Language and Science Related Subjects in the Context of Higher Education in Thailand (Published)

This study was conducted at a university in the surrounding areas of Bangkok to cross-compare academic performances between female (n = 406) and male (n = 496) students in both English language skills and GPA scores in science-based subjects. 902 second-year students were selected from four separate faculties to examine the interaction of the gender variable across a broader spectrum of academic backgrounds; faculty subgroups were clustered accordingly: business studies (n = 315), engineering (n = 317), computer science (n = 178) and veterinary medicine (n = 92). T-tests calculations indicated that female students’ level of attainment was significantly higher in both academic spheres: English (females: 56.85, males: 47.87; [sig: p = <0.05]); GPA (females: 70.5, males; 63.75; [sig: p = <0.05]). Furthermore, according to faculty subgroup comparisons, females consistently outperformed their male counterparts in both English language and science related subjects, and also outnumbered their male peers in the top-100 achievers in both domains.

Keywords: English proficiency, Gender, Performance, Science, variability

Assessment of Chemical Composition, Variability, Heritability and Genetic Advance in Tetrapluera Tetraptera Fruits (Published)

Fruits of six genotypes of Tetrapluera tetraptera collected from six States in Southern Nigeria were analyzed for proximate, minerals, vitamins and phytochemical composition. The aims were to determine nutrient composition as well as variations among them, estimate the proportions of heritable and non heritable components, and expected genetic advance. The determinants were replicated 3 times in completely randomized design. Analysis of variance showed that proximate, minerals, vitamins and phytochemical were significant (P< 0.01). The results showed that the fruit is a good source of essential nutrients, minerals (potassium, iron, and calcium), vitamins A, B-complex; C and E. Heritable variations among the genotypes were observed in their ether, protein, crude fibre, potassium and Vitamin A contents. Selection based on these traits could lead to improvement of nutritional and phytochemical composition of T. tetraptera fruits, for more availability and consumption by average Nigerians.

Keywords: Chemical composition., Genetic Advance, Heritability, Tetrapluera Tetraptera Fruits, variability


The monthly mean maximum and minimum temperature data were analysed with the aim of revealing spatial and temporal pattern of long-term trends in the variables. The study is based on the data collected from Nigeria Meteorological Agency’s network of meteorological stations spread across Nigeria spanning from 1950-2012. A total of 20 meteorological stations spread across Nigeria were used for the analysis. Statistical techniques such as time-series plots, correlation analysis, descriptive statistics and Mann-Kendall’s test were used for the analysis. These analyses were executed using the R programming language, MATLAB and SPSS computer software packages. The results show latitudinal dependence of basic temperature characteristics with the northern part of the country exhibiting higher temperature variability than the south. The Mann-Kendall tests indicate that 17 stations (representing 85%) show significant increasing trends in the minimum temperature at the 0.01 level of significance while 16 stations (representing 80%) show significant increasing trends in the maximum temperature at the 0.01 and 0.05 significance levels. Port Harcourt and Ikeja have greatest trend coefficients among the 20 stations. The minimum temperatures have higher trend coefficients than the maximum temperatures for almost all the stations. The interstation spatial coherence revealed by correlation coefficients indicates that almost all the station’s minimum and maximum temperatures are positively correlated with others at the 0.01 level of significance. The Mann-Kendall’s test results show a general warming trend across the stations.

Keywords: Mann-Kendall, Nigeria, Trends, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, variability