Small Organic Farming: The Case of Pepper (Piper Nigrum L.) Value Chain in São Tomé and Príncipe (Published)
Organic agriculture, in addition to supporting environmental sustainability, has been a meaningful way to protect and develop small farming in developing regions. The changes that have occurred within the value chain, such as increases in global standards and the effect of globalisation, have created an increase in both opportunities and risks for smallholders. In the developing countries, mainly on African continent organic agriculture beyond being less researched than in the developed ones, there are constraints related to scale, certification policies, strategies, and the fact that most farmers remain in informal circuits. This paper presents a study of the pepper value chain in São Tomé e Príncipe, which is divided into two categories: certified organic producers, affiliated (Aff) to the Cooperative of Pepper and Vanilla Export (CEPIBA) and non-certified organic pepper, non-affiliated farmers (Naf). The study presents the strategy to promote organic farming through the value chain and a brief comparison among certified and non-certified organic producers. The results showed that Aff perform better than Naf because they have financial stability and apply sustainable practices that are more productive and provide better income, while Naf generally practice subsistence farming with the exception of some medium enterprises.
Up-grading and Enhancing Sustainable Linkages of Rwanda’s Tourism Value Chains: Opportunities and Bottlenecks (Published)
The Rwandan government’s Economic Development and Poverty Reduction S4trategy II (EDPRS 2, 2013-2018) highlights enhancement of connectivity and linkages within the country’s economy as one of the priority areas for economic transformation. In the highlights, emphasis is put on the need for deepening the integration of key value chains of the economy. After a comprehensive analysis of Rwanda’s global competitiveness, tourism was identified as one of the key sectors that would spur economic development in the country. Important as it is, however, the linkage of this sector to the rest of the economy was found to be weak and hence compromises on its ability to deliver on certain targets as expected. This paper thus identifies opportunities as well as the bottlenecks within tourism value chains in Rwanda and recommends possible solutions. A questionnaire survey was used to obtain data related to visitor expenditure, targeting visitors at land border points and Kigali International airport. Focus group discussions were also conducted in gathering data on value chains analysis and identification of intervention programs that would remove any bottlenecks in the system.