Entrepreneurship Development and Youth Employment in Nigeria: Perspectives on Selected Entrepreneurship Schemes (Published)
The study examined the relationship between entrepreneurship development and youth employment in Nigeria. It focused on two empowerment schemes: Youth Entrepreneurship Development Programme (YEDP) and Youth Initiative for Sustainable Agriculture in Nigeria (YISA). The nation’s unemployment record, especially among youth, is alarming. A National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) report in 2018 shows that, out of the 85million labour force in Nigeria, 34million are unemployed and underemployed youths, with 25million largely uneducated. The YEDP and YISA schemes were designed to train and make youths entrepreneurs that would be self-employed and also employ others. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to show that in spite of the conscious and frantic efforts by government and non-governmental organizations through the framework of YEDP and YISA to address the unemployment challenge in the country not so much has been achieved. The study revealed that the programmes have created a number of entrepreneurs and employment for young people across the country. Nonetheless, these efforts have not significantly yielded the desired outcomes of massive job creation for the youths and ensuring national food security. To achieve desired results, using the agricultural value chain, there is need to adopt scientific knowledge based agricultural production. Hence the paper concluded that for Nigeria to address the twin challenges of massive unemployment and national food insecurity agricultural activities should be scientific and greatly modernized. The study recommended, among other things, that integrated farming approach, involving large variety of activities per hectare should be adopted and there should be substantial investment in R&D to generate new ideas and high yielding seeds for the new entrepreneur-farmers.
Assessment Of Factors Affecting Rice (Oryza Spp.) Value Chain (Rvc) In Ogun and Niger States, Nigeria (Published)
The need to increasing rice productivity, value addition and acceptability through the rice value chain are some of the objectives of Federal Government of Nigeria in recent time. Rice is a major staple food in Nigeria. Rice production is however low which make the country to be a net importer of rice in Africa. This study was carried out to assess factors affecting rice (Oryza spp.) value chain in Ogun and Niger States, Nigeria. Multistage sampling techniques were used in the selection of 320 respondents for this study. Data collected were analyzed with chi square. Results of this research showed that more than forty percent of the respondents were between 30 – 40 years of age, predominantly male (80.3%), married (83.1%), had relatively large household size (6 people) and formal education (80.6%). Average income generated was estimated as ₦551,250/ha. They were member of Cooperative societies (66.6%), FADAMA (23.4%) and RIFAN (10%). More respondents (60%) carried out soil test and used tractor for land clearing in Niger State than in Ogun State (11.9%). Rice seeds were mostly planted on the field nursery (90%) rather than tray nursery (10%) using broadcasting method (84.4%). Hired and family labour (58.2%) was used for rice value chain in the two sampled states. Also, most operations in the rice processing were carried out manually (100%) due to non-availability of basic rice processing facilities. Marketing of rice was usually done at local markets (98.3%) at interval of 5-day marketing (72.2%) and mudu/congo (69.1%) was the item used for measurement in the market. Moreover, the returns of value addition were higher at marketing stage (₦750/kg in Ogun State and ₦550/kg in Niger State) than production stage (₦350/kg in Ogun State and ₦280/kg in Niger State). Birds’ disturbance (96.6%), high cost of processing equipment (92.5%), inadequate finance (83.1%) and lack of rural infrastructure (82.8%) were the major constraints to rice value chain in the sampled states. Chi- square analysis shows that there is significant relationship between socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and value addition at p < 0.05 level of significance. Similarly, significant relationship existed between threshing (χ2 = 8.35, df = 1, p = 0.00) and rice value addition at p < 0.05 level of significance. The study therefore recommends that rice farmers should embark on value addition to enhance their income from rice production.
Recommendations Developing the Sustainable Food Value Chain of the Agricultural Sector in Dong Nai Province (Published)
Vietnam’s economy is increasingly integrated into the international economy. The key economic sectors in which agriculture is assessed will have many favorable opportunities for development. However, in order not to fall behind, the agricultural sector must rapidly develop the value chain. Moreover, the “4 houses” link in modern agricultural production is claimed to be the best one at present. The most important issue: what farmers produce, where to sell, how the price is the only satisfactory answer when there is clarification of roles and responsibilities of each house in the linkage. The role of “role play” is also intended to promote the overall strength of the link. There are 4 main factors: Government (State), Scientist, Enterprises and Farmer are the four main factors of linkages in agricultural production. In particular, the State is “the leader”, the engine of the link. Enterprises play the important role to link the remaining “4 houses” to form the raw material production area; Input support and product procurement for farmers; step by step to build brand name of agricultural products. The study results showed that there were 400 persons who include: 200 managers of enterprises, 170 farmers, 30 experts related to agricultural sector in Dong Nai province who interviewed and answered about 17 questions. The Data collected from June 2016 to April 2017. This study had been analyzed Cronbach’s Alpha testing, KMO testing and the result of KMO testing used for the multiple regression. Persons’ responses measured through an adapted questionnaire on a 5-point Likert scale. The Data processed by SPSS 20.0. In addition, four components affecting the sustainable food value chain development with significance level 5 percent and then the researchers have recommendations developing the sustainable food value chain of the agricultural sector in Dong Nai province.
India is the sixth largest producer of maize in the world, and contributed about 2 per cent to the global maize production of 855.72 million tonnes (Mt) in 2012-13. Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh are the corn belts from South where Karnataka alone occupies 12% of the total area (one million ha) and contributes nearly 16% of its total production. Nearly ¾ of the produce is being processed as animal feed and remaining for human consumption and industrial use. There is a huge demand for maize and maize products because, it is rich in lysine, tryptophan, amino acids and low fat content and it is a good product for diabetic and obese disorders. Now a days there is a more demand for maize value added products in urban and peri-urban areas, indicating a vast scope for fortification as nutritional supplementation at all the stages right from farmer’s field to consumer’s plate. The rich nutri-maize is available in abundance to the consumers at relatively cheaper price (compared to other cereals) can be further commercially exploited for nutritive health foods by value addition and making available them at affordable price for the advantage of vulnerable groups and other consumers at large. The main objective of the study was to carry out value chain analysis of maize in Mahabubnagar district and environs with a view to identify potential production, demand and supply, value chain, value additions, key sector constraints and opportunities and appropriate interventions.
Review of Bamboo Value Chain in Ethiopia (Published)
Ethiopia has greatest bamboo resources in Africa representing a significant proportion of Africa’s total bamboo resources. The main objective of this review to increase the understanding of problems and constraints facing bamboo production and marketing system, current opportunities and challenges of bamboo marketing, economic, environmental and aesthetic value of bamboo in Ethiopia. Bamboo value chain includes wide range of production to consumption systems and actors. Depending on which market is served, the bamboo products in Ethiopia passes through various intermediary stages until it reaches the final customers. But their value chain linkage is undeveloped. Bamboo agribusiness has worldwide opportunities. Bamboo products currently have very huge demand. It can be utilized at all levels of industrial activity from small craft based industries to modern highly integrated plants. Imbalance between demand and supply is one the core challenges to bamboo agribusiness sector in Ethiopia. Bamboo has huge economic, environmental, aesthetic/cultural values. It is applicable in a variety of engineering fields including landscape, civil and chemical engineering. Bamboo has also culture value in addition to economic and ecological value in Ethiopia. For example Dawuro in Ethiopia; the longest woodwind musical instrument in the world locally called “Dinka” (4 to 5 meters long, four in number) which is made from bamboo and other materials. Therefore; bamboo has worldwide uses ranges from medicine to nutrition (has 1500 uses). It is possible to exploit the existing opportunities of bamboo sub-sector through value chain approach by promoting the formation of farmers’ associations, provision of appropriate technology and training for pre-processing, facilitating capacity development with technology transfer and upgrading skills in bamboo processing and creation of a network and links with other associations, stakeholders and partners are important to solve challenges of bamboo industry in Ethiopia.
THE EFFECT OF USING ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS TO IMPROVE THE VALUE CHAIN IN BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS – EMPIRICAL STUDY (Published)
The study aims to introduce the conceptual framework of the value chain as an analytical method for business organizations, and the analysis of the role of accounting information systems and the effect of their use in improving the value chain of the business organizations. The two researchers developed a study tool (questionnaire) based on the theoretical framework and previous studies. 64 questionnaires have been distributed to a sample of the study population, which consists of employees in the finance department of public shareholding industrial companies in the Kingdom of Bahrain. 50 questionnaires have been adopted and 14 were excluded due to their incompatibility with the analysis. Using the appropriate statistical analysis tools for the study data (arithmetic mean, standard deviation, and testing of T-test One Sample) the researchers found a deficiency in the level of the availability of the basic components of accounting systems and the level of the quality of accounting information required to improve the value chain of business organizations in public shareholding industrial companies in the Kingdom of Bahrain in general. According to the results of the analysis the researchers recommended the need to work on improving the level of the basic components of accounting systems to improve the quality of accounting information, in order to improve the value chain of public shareholding industrial companies in the Kingdom of Bahrain; specifically in regards to the existence of clear and specific work procedures in the accounting system, the level of the effectiveness of internal control measures, clear definition of responsibilities and authority, and management’s attention in training and continuing education programs for employees.
Morocco is the world’s leading producer and exporter of canned sardines. However, this product value chain encounters multiple challenges. This study explores how such a chain could create and capture a larger value added share within the European market. Surveys using questionnaires and open interviews have been carried out including a sample of relevant actors in the chain. The results show that the value chain is substantially driven by European retailers who create 68% of the total value added; while Moroccan canning industry remains relatively less wealth-building and captures less income. The improvement strategy should foster better vertical cooperation among actors, a common commercial policy and an innovative diversification of the Moroccan offer.
RETAIL MARKETING OF FRUITS & VEGETABLES IN INDIA: A CASE STUDY ON EXPORT OF GRAPES FROM ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA (Published)
To develop an innovative technique to apply retail marketing and export of grape improvement techniques to a complete supply chain from farm to consumer. Design/ methodology/approach – Action research based on a Andhra Pradesh case study involving Post harvest loss in grapes for export market. Findings – Export market highlights significant opportunities to improve fruits supply chain performance, export perspective, profitability and relationships. Originality value – Drawing on both primary and secondary data, the paper examines how increasing demand and marketing costs, wastage impact on grape grower returns. Development of supply chain improvement methodology.
Marketing Skills as a factor Influencing Adoption of Innovations along the Mango supply Chain in Meru County, Kenya (Review Completed - Accepted)
The study adopted descriptive survey design. The population of the study consisted of Mango Growers in Meru County and the mango traders and exporters. Meru County was chosen due to the good climatic condition that has made it suitable for mangoes production. This study adopted a probability sampling method to select the respondents for the study. Out of 13,442 farmers, traders and exporters, 447 farmers, 12 traders and 2 exporters were randomly selected for interview. Secondary data used in the study was collected from the Ministry of Agriculture Offices while primary data was collected from the respondents using a structured questionnaire with both open and close ended questions. Both qualitative and quantitative data were used in the analysis. Quantitative data obtained from the field was analyzed using descriptive and inferential techniques. The descriptive techniques adopted were means and frequencies while the inferential technique used were regression and correlation to establish relationship between variables in the study and inferences made. Frequency tables and charts were used to present the findings.
The study found out that majority of the traders/exporters were trained on marketing. They had price knowledge, product knowledge and promotion knowledge and majority adopted innovations unlike the growers who had low marketing skills; this would explain why 39% of the produce goes to waste. On traders/ exporters, a significant chi-square relationship was established with innovation given a chi-square value of 9.620 at p=0.047.
The study concludes that marketing skills influence buying and selling; and if value chain members had excellent marketing skills, nothing could be going to waste as they would adopt relevant technologies and add value to the produce and meet the customers’ needs.
The study recommends that there is need for intense training on market skills on value chain members and stakeholders, either through NGOs and private sector. There is also need for business incubation programs and need to revise training curriculum to cater for marketing skills.