Tag Archives: validity

Development and Validation of the Intrapersonal Peace Scale (Published)

This work reports on a new scale, the Intrapersonal Peace Scale. The report is in four phases: Initial validation of the scale, involving 303 undergraduates; Confirmatory Factor Analysis, involving 2, 677 community sample; Concurrent validity of the scale, involving 77 undergraduates, and Norms, age and gender differences in intrapersonal peace, involving 5009 respondents. The author used Factor and Item Analyses, Pearson correlation coefficients and Analysis of Variance for data analysis. The Scale has three factors. The factors are: 1. Intrapersonal Harmony, 2. Intrapersonal Disequilibrium, and 3. Intrapersonal Dissonance. The three factors were confirmed via Confirmatory Factor Analysis with good indices. The scale correlated significantly with various constructs, namely: anxiety, depression, psychological wellbeing, spiritual intelligence and assertiveness, and there are age and gender differences in intrapersonal peace. The new scale, which is a major contribution to peace research, can be used in clinical and research contexts to evaluate people’s inward peacefulness.

Citation: Euckie Udo Immanuel (2022) Development and Validation of the Intrapersonal Peace Scale, British Journal of Psychology Research, Vol.10, No.1, pp. 36-51


Keywords: : Scale, Peace, Reliability, intra-personal, validity

Development of Soft Skill Scale (SSS) For Educational and Industrial Use in Nigeria (Published)

Globally, soft skill is a sought-after skill in the workplace. While this is obtainable and trendy at the global level, Nigeria should not be an exception. Hence, the present study developed Soft Skill Scale (SSS) for educational and industrial use in Nigeria. Triangulation research design based on Classical test theory was used to sample 887 participants from both educational and industrial sectors in Nigeria. One hundred and fifty (150) initial items of SSS were developed. Through Principal Component Analysis (PCA), the items were reduced to 110 at pilot study and 69 at post field level. To further affirm the validity of the instrument, a post-pilot study was carried out on 347 respondents. Analysis was done with factor analysis, Pearson Product Moment Correlation as well as Cronbach Alpha method. The findings of the study showed that 69 items loaded into the five factors. This includes communication 14 items, Organization 14 items, Teamwork 21 items, Creativity 7 items and Adaptability 13 items. Subscale-total correlation at both post-field and post-pilot phases yielded 0.73/0.61, 0.83/0.84, 0.89/0.85, 0.76/0.68, and 0.65/0.63 for communication, Organization, Teamwork, Creativity and Adaptability respectively. Cronbach Alpha reliability for full SSS was .96 at post-field and 0.95 at post-pilot phase. The post-pilot validity check all affirmed that SSS was highly valid. Based on this, it was recommended among others that SSS should be recognized and used in school and industrial settings.

Keywords: Reliability, Soft Skills, Test, validity

Psychometric Analysis of Dyscalculia Test (Published)

The aim of the research was to carry out a Psychometric Analysis of the Dyscalculia Test.  Triangulation research design was utilized in this study. The study was driven by four research questions. The study’s population included all 4,758,800 pupils in Nigeria’s upper primary and junior secondary schools in Nigeria. A total of 2340 students were randomly selected using a multistage sampling procedure. The data for the study was the Dyscalculia Test. Expert judgment and empirical evidence of factor analysis were used to establish the instruments’ face, content, and construct validity. Split half Technique was used to ensure the instrument reliability. The split-half reliability study for the Dyscalculia Test indicates that the first half of the test has a reliability estimate of.894 and the second half of the test has a reliability estimate of.780 and a Spearman Brown Prophecy estimate of .824 was used to evaluate the whole test’s reliability. Research questions were answered using p value and discriminatory indexes, content validity Ratio, factor Analysis, and Split half reliability estimate. Result on analysis revealed that for Dyscalculia Test, the P values for the test obtained under CTT varied from 0.2 to 0.8, whereas the R values obtained ranged from -0.002 to 0.740. It was also found that Reliability, content and construct validity were properly established using factor analysis, and a high content validity Ratio and Split Half Reliability estimate. It was recommended based on findings that assessment instruments employed in the educational system, whether at primary or secondary, institutions, should be subjected to item by analysis since they give adequate information on how effectively particular items operate.

Keywords: difficulty index., discrimination index, dyscalculia test, validity

Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) and the Post Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (PUTME) As Predictors of Undergraduate Students’ Final Grades (Published)

This study set out to investigate UTME and PUTME Examinations as predictors of undergraduate students’ final grades. The research design is the ex-post-facto. The population of this study comprises of 100 and 200level undergraduate students in four different departments. The sample for the analysis is 436 students. Data were collected from the official students’ records at the Management Information System (M.I.S) Unit of the University of Benin.  The data collected were analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (r) and linear regression.  The findings of the study revealed that JAMB/UTME, PUTME scores do not significantly predict undergraduate final grades in Nigeria University and both JAMB/UTME and PUME scores combined do not significantly predict undergraduate final grades in Nigeria University.  The need for stakeholders in education to examine the relevance of the JAMB/UTME and PUTME examinations in the selection of students into the tertiary institution which has led to multiplicity of examination and other attendant problems for the students, parents and even the institutions; and the need for every tertiary institution to be allowed to conduct their screening examination and not a stooge of the Joint Admission and Matriculation Board were recommended.

Keywords: : Academic Performance, Examination, Predictive, validity

Validity and Reliability of the Social Comparison Questionnaire (Published)

Social Comparison is an individual’s tendency to evaluate self-competence by comparing competencies and self-opinion with other individual competencies and opinions, in order to achieve a certain superior position. In this study, the preparation of the measurement instrument was based on the distribution of data contributed by 60 active students of the Faculty of Psychology at Atma Jaya Catholic University, Jakarta, as participants. Measuring instruments are arranged based on aspects that are assumed to form Social Comparison, namely perceptions of certain standards, perceptions of comparative opinions and perceptions of competencies Garcia, Tor and Schiff, 2013; Garcia, Tor and Gonzales, 2006). Based on knowledge of test construction, 22 items were arranged. From the results of data analysis with SPSS version 20, there were 15 items that were declared valid, with a validity score greater than 0.3. These 15 items show reliability of 0.819. Thus, the Social Comparison measuring instrument is stated to meet the rules of validity and reliability, and can be used as a measure of behavior.

Keywords: Questionnaire, Reliability, social comparison, validity

A Comparative study on Public Procurement Rules (PPR),-2008, Bangladesh and Asian Development Bank (ADB) Procurement Regulations 2017: Strengths and Weaknesses (Published)

This study mainly explores the strengths and weaknesses of ADB procurement regulations 2017 and PPR, 2008 followed by some recommendation. This comparison is done by reviewing the ADB Procurement Regulations 2017 and PPR, 2008. The PPR, 2008 delineates provisions of procurement plan, preparation of tender or proposal, committee, principles of public procurement, tender validity and security, specifications, standard, brand names, approval process, notification of award, contract administration and management, records and audit, joint venture, conflict of interest, complaint and appeal procedure, methods of procurement for goods and related services, works, physical services, processing of procurement, professional misconduct, e-Government procurement. The main spirit of PPR, 2008 are transparency, accountability, equity, fairness and open competition for ensuring value for money by using public fund.There are some strengths and weaknesses in some specific cases of regulations as well. Strengths in ADB procurement regulations include performance based procurement, bonus for performance, community based procurement, encouraging joint venture, procurement plan, pre-qualification, non-compliance, misconduct, settlement of dispute and so on. Using the strengths of ADB procurement regulations, the borrower can achieve the speedy procurement, fairness competition, accountability and value for money.  The main weaknesses are absence of sustainable procurement, supply chain issues, whole life cycle cost, sustainability, strategic partnership with supplier and contractors, disposal policy and so on. The guidance in the ADB regulations and PPR, 2008 conform to some aspects and differ in others. Because of weaknesses in both guidelines and rules, sustainability and social aspects are compromised in public procurement which hampers long-term value for money. This paper explores the gaps of internationally accepted procurement standards and practices in PPR of Bangladesh and emphasizes improvement of regulatory framework by fostering strengths of both guidelines and rules in context of Bangladesh.

Keywords: Management, Procurement Planning, Proposal, Regulation, Tender, validity

Validity of Lesson Plan (RPP) Thematic Learning Model Based on Gender and Diversity (Kebhinekaan) (Published)

This study aims to determine the validity of the lesson plan on the thematic learning model based on gender and diversity values for grade IV students in Primary Schools in Aceh Barat District, Aceh. This research embraces research and development with stages 1) preliminary study, 2) design and development stage 3) testing phase. Validity test data obtained from the validation results by experts using a questionnaire instrument. The data obtained were analyzed using a Likert scale. The results obtained from this validity test showed a validity value of 90% with a very valid category.


Keywords: Diversity, Gender, Lesson Plan, validity

An Assessment of the Reliability of Secondary Data in Management Science Research (Published)

Secondary data (SD) provides major advantage in the use of existing data sources, with large amounts of information, at relatively cheaper cost and easily available for research purposes. Even some researchers argue that millions of person-years of experience in the database will be available through SD, which would be impossible to collect in prospective studies. But an unreliable data could impede on the quality of research results and conclusions. The study critical examination of literature has identified tools that can aid the assessment of SD reliability. The study believes that the use of the adjusted inter-raters/observer as proposed by the study will add value to the method of assessing the reliability of SD, because of it use of statistical tools to directly estimate the available data. The study also believes that this will serve as a base for other researchers to improve on the study of assessing the reliability of secondary data.

Keywords: Inter-raters/observer, Reliability, Secondary data, validity

Statistical Analysis: Internal-Consistency Reliability and Construct Validity (Published)

In testing a proposed model of any academic field, huge extents of data are collected and analyzed through a proposed or adopted scale by researchers.  It is very significant to test the reliability and the construct validity of this scale.   This study aims to explore the important strategies or tools that should be followed to achieve a reliable and valid scale. It also aims to study the two concepts in association with scale testing as well as to afford a snapshot of the recent understandings of the reliability and validity of scale tests as expressed in previous research studies. This paper emphasis mainly on the theoretical and practical parts of reliability, and the affiliation between the two perceptions. Seeking to synthesize research results about the construct validity and internal-consistency reliability of items (factors), we focus on the four main measurements: Cronbach’s alpha, inter- item correlation, corrected item – total correlation, and Cronbach’s alpha if item deleted.  These measurements would provide researchers with a clear knowledge about purifying the survey’s scale before using it in collecting the data set. This kind of research is required so that a complete understanding of the construct validity and internal – consistency reliability of items is realized. 

Keywords: : Scale, Construct, Cronbach’s Alpha, Internal-Consistency, Reliability, validity

Determinants that Influence an Effective Performance Management System in Public Health Institutions in Kenya: A Case of Coast Provincial General Hospital (Published)

The objective of this study was to establish the determinants of an effective performance management system in Public Health Institutions in Kenya. The study specifically investigated the case of Coast Provincial General Hospital (CPGH). Primary data was collected by use of a questionnaire which was distributed to a population constituting of 45 heads of departments. Data was analysed using descriptive statistical techniques. Multiple regression analysis technique was used to explain the nature of the relationship between the dependent variable and the independent variables in the study. The study found that no significant relationship existed between the variables strategic congruence, viability, reliability, acceptability and the performance of Coast Provincial General Hospital respectively. The study however found that a positive and significant relationship existed between specificity and performance of the employees of Coast Provincial General Hospital. It was concluded that, performance management system was an important tool to continuously monitor employees’ performance, identify skill gaps and develop required competencies.

Keywords: Acceptance, Performance Appraisal, Reliability, Specificity, Strategic congruence, validity

A Review of Educational Assessment: Reliability, Validity and Relationship with Learning—the Case of Northern Ireland (Ni) Transfer Tests Policy and Practice (Published)

Northern Ireland 11+ transfer tests policy is a long-standing debatable issue. Presently, the transfer-tests are divided into two distinct test types and they are colloquially known as the AQE (the Association of Quality Education) as well as the GL (Granada Learning) tests which are non-statutory as the government removed the NI transfer tests in 2008. But, previously these tests were called 11+ exams in which all students took the same tests for grammar school admission. This study aims to evaluate the current NI transfer test policy in light of its reliability, validity, and relationship with learning. The analysis of NI transfer tests traces a number of complications and dilemmas such as unfaithful scoring and grading systems as they contain a lack of transparency. The tests policy also fosters a conflict between the sense of deprivation and advantage. The policy also bewilders a group of   pupils, and develops some negative effects on learning. In a word, there are little positive outcomes of these testing systems. Rather, a serious disastrous effect has been culminated in the absence of government care. Henceforth, an alternative transfer testing procedure is essential to be embedded in the NI education system which can fit well with all students in general.

Keywords: Learning, Reliability, transfer test policy, validity