Validity of Lesson Plan (RPP) Thematic Learning Model Based on Gender and Diversity (Kebhinekaan) (Published)
This study aims to determine the validity of the lesson plan on the thematic learning model based on gender and diversity values for grade IV students in Primary Schools in Aceh Barat District, Aceh. This research embraces research and development with stages 1) preliminary study, 2) design and development stage 3) testing phase. Validity test data obtained from the validation results by experts using a questionnaire instrument. The data obtained were analyzed using a Likert scale. The results obtained from this validity test showed a validity value of 90% with a very valid category.
Secondary data (SD) provides major advantage in the use of existing data sources, with large amounts of information, at relatively cheaper cost and easily available for research purposes. Even some researchers argue that millions of person-years of experience in the database will be available through SD, which would be impossible to collect in prospective studies. But an unreliable data could impede on the quality of research results and conclusions. The study critical examination of literature has identified tools that can aid the assessment of SD reliability. The study believes that the use of the adjusted inter-raters/observer as proposed by the study will add value to the method of assessing the reliability of SD, because of it use of statistical tools to directly estimate the available data. The study also believes that this will serve as a base for other researchers to improve on the study of assessing the reliability of secondary data.
In testing a proposed model of any academic field, huge extents of data are collected and analyzed through a proposed or adopted scale by researchers. It is very significant to test the reliability and the construct validity of this scale. This study aims to explore the important strategies or tools that should be followed to achieve a reliable and valid scale. It also aims to study the two concepts in association with scale testing as well as to afford a snapshot of the recent understandings of the reliability and validity of scale tests as expressed in previous research studies. This paper emphasis mainly on the theoretical and practical parts of reliability, and the affiliation between the two perceptions. Seeking to synthesize research results about the construct validity and internal-consistency reliability of items (factors), we focus on the four main measurements: Cronbach’s alpha, inter- item correlation, corrected item – total correlation, and Cronbach’s alpha if item deleted. These measurements would provide researchers with a clear knowledge about purifying the survey’s scale before using it in collecting the data set. This kind of research is required so that a complete understanding of the construct validity and internal – consistency reliability of items is realized.
Determinants that Influence an Effective Performance Management System in Public Health Institutions in Kenya: A Case of Coast Provincial General Hospital (Published)
The objective of this study was to establish the determinants of an effective performance management system in Public Health Institutions in Kenya. The study specifically investigated the case of Coast Provincial General Hospital (CPGH). Primary data was collected by use of a questionnaire which was distributed to a population constituting of 45 heads of departments. Data was analysed using descriptive statistical techniques. Multiple regression analysis technique was used to explain the nature of the relationship between the dependent variable and the independent variables in the study. The study found that no significant relationship existed between the variables strategic congruence, viability, reliability, acceptability and the performance of Coast Provincial General Hospital respectively. The study however found that a positive and significant relationship existed between specificity and performance of the employees of Coast Provincial General Hospital. It was concluded that, performance management system was an important tool to continuously monitor employees’ performance, identify skill gaps and develop required competencies.
A Review of Educational Assessment: Reliability, Validity and Relationship with Learning—the Case of Northern Ireland (Ni) Transfer Tests Policy and Practice (Published)
Northern Ireland 11+ transfer tests policy is a long-standing debatable issue. Presently, the transfer-tests are divided into two distinct test types and they are colloquially known as the AQE (the Association of Quality Education) as well as the GL (Granada Learning) tests which are non-statutory as the government removed the NI transfer tests in 2008. But, previously these tests were called 11+ exams in which all students took the same tests for grammar school admission. This study aims to evaluate the current NI transfer test policy in light of its reliability, validity, and relationship with learning. The analysis of NI transfer tests traces a number of complications and dilemmas such as unfaithful scoring and grading systems as they contain a lack of transparency. The tests policy also fosters a conflict between the sense of deprivation and advantage. The policy also bewilders a group of pupils, and develops some negative effects on learning. In a word, there are little positive outcomes of these testing systems. Rather, a serious disastrous effect has been culminated in the absence of government care. Henceforth, an alternative transfer testing procedure is essential to be embedded in the NI education system which can fit well with all students in general.