Tag Archives: Validation

Spatio-temporal Validation of Multi-Source Satellite Rainfall Products in the Upper Tekeze-Atbara Basin, Ethiopia (Published)

Precise and reliable rainfall data is crucial for regional water resource management. However, rainfall data in Ethiopia mainly characterized by sparse distribution and temporal inconsistency. Therefore, the spatial and temporal patterns of rainfall are poorly understood in the major basins. Recently, satellite rainfall products (SRPs) have been applied as an alternative source to obtain long-term rainfall data. This study evaluated the performance of three different SRPs, namely CHIRPS, PERSIANN_CDR, and TMPA3B42, with respect to observed data in the Upper Tekeze-Atbara River Basin using different statistical indices. The result showed that PERSIANN_CDR had very low PBIAS than other products. The PERSIANN_CDR had a slight overestimation tendency, while the CHIRPS and TMPA3B42 considerably overestimated observation rainfall. The PERSIANN_CDR performed well for kiremt, belg, and bega season, with the lowest RMSE value of 2.9, 1.4, and 0.8 mm/day, respectively. On the contrary, TMPA3B42 poorly performed for kiremt, belg, and bega seasons with the largest RMSE value of 3.1, 1.9, and 1.1 mm/day, respectively. The PERSIANN_CDR had the best skill to detect observation rainfall, while the CHIRPS had the worst detecting skill during all seasons. In kiremt seasons, the PERSIANN_CDR product showed a good estimation of the observed rainfall almost in all parts of the basin except for a slight overestimation in northwestern and underestimation in southwestern regions. Overall, the findings of this study demonstrated the PERSIANN_CDR product potentials and use for analyzing rainfall distribution and variability in Ethiopia’s Upper Tekeze-Atbara River Basin.

Citation:Achenafi Teklay (2022) Spatio-temporal Validation of Multi-Source Satellite Rainfall Products in the Upper Tekeze-Atbara Basin, Ethiopia, International Journal of Environment and Pollution Research, Vol.10, No.2 pp.50-76

Keywords: CHIRPS, PERSIANN_CDR, Spatio-temporal, TMPA3B42, Tekeze-Atbara, Validation, satellite rainfall products

Development and Validation of Instrument for Measuring Competency of Secondary School Principals in Akwa Ibom State (Published)

The need for developing and validating a standardized instrument for measuring educational variables and construct is very important in evaluating educational problems. This study is therefore conducted to develop and standardized an instrument for measuring Competency of Secondary School Principals in Akwa Ibom State. In carrying out this study, three research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted the instrumentation research design. A total of 1349 teachers were selected from a population of 11,036 teachers to rate their principals in the public secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State. The instrument developed was titled Principal Competency Scale (PCS). A total of 71 items were written initially for the instrument. The instrument was face validated by seven experts; three lecturers in Educational Evaluation from the Department of Educational Foundations, Guidance and Counselling University of Uyo, two secondary school principals and two secondary school teachers in Akwa Ibom State. The two components of the principal competency measured were named; Human Relation Competency and Administrative Competency. The instrument was then administered to 1149 teachers and the scores were subjected to factor analysis to determine the construct validity of the instrument. Two components were extracted from the scree plot of the principal component analysis. Internal consistency reliability was computed for the instrument using Cronbach Alpha, which yielded a coefficient of 0.897. The instrument after the validation was trial tested on a sample of 200 teachers to determine how it functions among gender of principals. Mean was used in answering research questions and   independent t-test was used in testing the hypotheses. The result of the analysis indicated a significant difference in principals’ human relation competency based on gender and no significant difference in principals’ administrative leadership competency   based on gender. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that the Principal Competency Scale should be used in measuring the competency of principals in secondary schools regardless of gender.

Keywords: Development, Validation, instrument, secondary school’s principals

A Computer Program for Agricultural Machinery Selection (Published)

A computer program for Agricultural Machinery Management (APAMAS) is a user-friendly interactive program written in Excell spreadsheet for machinery management .The user interacts with it by entering the required input data and it will carry out the interactive calculations. The APAMAS can determine the effective field capacity and field efficiency for some tillage implements , determines the drawbar power needed for each implement (hp), The program predicts the number of tractors and implements required for each agricultural operation  , calculates the total operation cost(SDG) per fed,  and finally giving the user an option to hire or own the machine(BEP).  The program enables the user to print out the output which is displayed on the screen. APAMAS was successfully verified statistically in comparison to Giad Company for Agricultural Services-(Eldamer) existing machinery program . The comparisons indicated that there were no significant differences. Validity and sensitivity tests of the program indicated that the APAMAS could be applied to any real-life case successfully and with confidence for any multi- crop farm

Keywords: BEP, Drawbar Power, Effective Field Capacity, Machinery Management, Validation, Verification

An Improved Model for Financial Institutions Loan Management System: A Machine Learning Approach (Published)

The inability of financial instructions, especially the Microfinance Banks, to forecast for the need of borrowers in order to make provision for them has been a cause for concern. Applications are made and most times the reply is that funds are not available. This paper demonstrated the design and implementation of neural network model for development of an improved loan-based application management system. The back propagation algorithm was used to train the neural network model to ascertain corrections between the data and to obtain the threshold value. The data was collected over a period of three years from UCL machine learning repository.  The system was designed using object oriented methodology and implemented with Java programming language and MATLAB. The results obtained showed the mean squared error values 1.09104e-12, 5.56228e-9 and 5.564314e-4 for the training, testing and validation respectively. It was seen from the result that neural network can forecast the financial market with minimum error.

Keywords: Mean Square Error, Neural network, Regression, Validation, and Forecasting.

Development and Validation of Circulation Software Package for Libraries in Federal Universities of North Central, Nigeria (Published)

The aim of this study was to investigate the development and validation of circulation software package for university libraries in Federal Universities of North Central Zone, Nigeria.. Specifically, five purposes and three research questions guided the study. Related literature was reviewed under conceptual framework, theoretical framework and related empirical studies. The study adopted descriptive survey at first after which it will adopt Research and Development (R&D). The study was carried out in North Central Zone, it has population of 155 comprising librarians and other library personnel who have worked  in circulation department from seven federal university libraries in the zone. The study used purposive sampling technique to sample 108 librarians and other library personnel. From the above population one hundred and eight (108) questionnaires were distributed filled and returned; representing a return rate of 70%. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics of frequency tables and mean scores. And the decision rule for research questions one through three was based on whether the mean score value was lower than or equal to and above the criterion mean value of 2.50 for either rejection or acceptance. The findings of the study shows: that federal university libraries under study to high extent employ manual procedures in carrying out basic circulation functions such as registering users at the circulation Desk, charging out items to users at circulation Desk, Discharging and renewing items to users at the circulation desk. The study revealed that majority of the respondents strongly agreed and agreed that Fast report generation is not possible, Tracing a book on the library shelf  is difficult, Information about issue/return of the books are not properly maintained,  No central database can be created as information is not available in database, Difficulty in determining if a patron has overdue, the manual charging was characterized by long queues and unnecessary delays, manual card systems basically provide  just one access point, the due date is on a card  that has been lost, It is possible to have two (or more!) cards for each item, Waste the users time, The process is cumbersome and Inefficiency in service delivery. Finally, the finding also shows that majority of the respondents have little or no skill in Software design, Software installation/operations, Web design, Digitization and imaging technology, Online cataloguing(MARC) and OCR Devices classification (NLM). It also revealed that respondents have low skill in automated circulation system and System analysis and design. However, the table indicated that most of the respondents have a very high skill in MSOffice, Database searching technique and Transformation of data. Recommendations were made as follows; Libraries should encourage the production of local library application software by patronizing them and even be part of the software development, there is need for constant training and re-training of staff in the proper handling of Information and Communication Technology equipment and process so as not to run in to trouble, staff such as programmers, analysts, and operators should be employed to handle the computer system and train the librarians on basic trouble shooting, ICT facilities and other equipment should be made available for staff at the circulation desk, white the outdated ones should be replaced and each university library should have a stand-by generator and UPS to guard against  power failure and its damage of the automation equipment. The project development of  library circulation Software package that was developed based on the findings of initial descriptive survey carried out to manage the daily book transaction and manage the member, books record more efficiently to improve management of the book property in the library. This library circulation Software package is mainly use by librarian, library admin and users. Besides that, library circulation Software package also allows user to search for availability of books by Title, Author and ISBN via World Wide Web. The methodology adopted to develop this system is waterfall model. Thus, the work chapters included system planning, requirement analysis, system design, programming, system and testing,   of the project. The software is available on-line via http// www.libcsp.com

Keywords: Circulation Software Package, Development, Federal Universities, Libraries, Nigeria, Validation