Knowledge, Behaviour and Perception of the Traders Toward’s Receiving Covid-19 Vaccine in Lapai Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria (Published)
This study sought to find out the knowledge, behaviour and perception of traders towards receiving Covid-19 vaccine in Lapai local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. Accidental sampling was used to sample 200 respondents in Lapai daily markets. A self-developed questionnaire was used as research instrument to sample 200 respondents. Descriptive statistics of frequency counts, percentages and mean were used to analyse the research questions. Chi-square goodness-of-fit test was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The majority of traders had adequate knowledge of Covid-19 (c2= 122.280; p <0.05), and conformed moderately to Covid-19 guideline protocol (c2= 18.320; p <0.05). Findings further revealed that there was negative perception of traders in embracing Covid-19 vaccine (c2= 45.880; p <0.05).The perceptions of traders generally were negative and not conforming with Covid-19 guideline protocols and they were not welcoming the vaccine, as they believed it may have side effect after receiving it. Traders concluded that only same vaccine received by the president of Nigeria will be accepted by them. The study recommends amongst others that traders must be enlightened to have adequate knowledge on the virus in other to change their negative behaviours to conform to COVID-19 guideline protocols. The importance of vaccination to the traders and its long time benefits must be emphasized to have Covid-19 free country.
A Comparative Evaluation of the Effect of the Outbreak of Covid-19 on Selected Legal Rights in Nigeria (Published)
There is no gain saying the fact that the outbreak of the corona virus; which spread over the globe like wide fire; is the worst calamity that has hit mankind since the second war. The virus, otherwise tagged Covid-19 has infected so many people and caused several deaths all over the world. This awful pandemic has affected not just lives; but all spheres of human endeavours ranging from the health sector to food and agriculture, migration and tourism, education, international commerce, environment and legal rights; to mention but a few. This paper critically examined the effect of the pandemic on some selected basic and constitutional rights with Nigeria as the focal geographical scope of the study, while drawing comparative analysis from the developments in some other countries. Relying on the exploratory doctrinal methodology and secondary sources of information, the paper found that the pandemic has inhibited the full enjoyment of basic rights; including fundamental rights, a situation which citizens have been compelled to accept. The paper further found that this period has witnessed a high level abuse of human rights as well as some other legally cognized basic rights. The paper condemned total deprivation and violation of such rights under any guise and concluded by suggesting ways how this pandemic period could be managed with citizens continually enjoying their basic and constitutional rights.
Community Pharmacists, Participation In Immunization Services in Cross River State, Nigeria. (Published)
Community pharmacists’ participation in providing immunization services is pivotal to expanding access to immunisation services especially in resource-constraint settings and bridging the existing gap in shortage of skilled service providers. Although there are several studies conducted on pharmacy–based immunization, the findings of such studies varies between countries and depends on the pharmacy practice characteristics of the area. Objective: The general objective of the study is to assess the extent of participation of Community Pharmacists in immunization services in Calabar Metropolis, Cross River State, Nigeria. Method: A descriptive cross sectional study design was used for the study. Data were collected using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire from 68 community pharmacists which were selected using the purposive sampling technique. Data generated were synthesised and analysed using SPSS (version 20.0) and results were presented in frequency tables and charts. Chi-square and Fisher Exact test was used to test for association between variables at 0.05 alpha level. Results: The result showed that 43 (69.4%) respondents were males, 49 (79.0%) were less than 40 years of age, 36 (58.1%) have been in practice for between 1-5 years and 53 (85.5%) had B.Pharm as the highest qualification. Most respondents 60 (97 %) provided at least one type of immunization service to the public and the vaccines commonly retailed were Tetanus Toxoid 57 (91.9%), Rabies vaccine 36 (58.1%) and Hepatitis B vaccine 9 (14.5%). Majority of the respondents 58 (94.0%) were willing to be more involved in providing immunization services. The immunization services respondents were willing to provide more were mainly educating clients on immunization 42 (67.7%), administering vaccines to clients 40 (64.5%) and engaging in mass campaign on immunization 38(61%). The association between the number of pharmacist in CPs (p = 1.000, fisher’s exact test,) and years of practice (p = 0.149, fisher’s exact test) were statistically not significant to the willingness of the community pharmacists to participate in immunization services. Conclusion: The inclusion of community pharmacists in advocacy, education and facilitation of immunization is critical to improving and expanding immunisation services to the underserved populace