Tag Archives: Urbanization

Rural – Urban Migration of Working in the Elbasan, District of Albania (Published)

Most indicators of social – economic welfare  in Elbasan region show a duality that shows a big difference between rural – urban areas, for indicators such as: living standards including health, income and access of different types of employment. As a result of high rates of growth population  is noted involvement of young people entering every year in the labor force. In order to employ the large number of young people, able to work, Elbasan district should create hundreds of job opportunities every year for new entrants in the labor force. Considering the large number of new entrants in the labor force, entering every year is shown un unemployment rate . I have made my choice to realize my scientific research in the field of rural – urban migration. I ask partly growing academic interest in the study of internal migration in less developed countries.

Keywords: Internal migration, Logistic models, Urbanization, human mobility

Issues and Challenges of Urban Governance in Africa: The Nigerian Experience (Published)

The growth of urban centres has become one of the most remarkable trends of the 20th century Africa.  Mans’ inclination to agglomerate in large number in a few urban centres is quite impressive.  No wonder about 10 of the fastest growing cities in the world are found in Africa with an annual average growth rate of 3.5 percent and presently the fastest in the world. (UN World Urbanisation Prospect, 2014).  The urbanisation process is accelerate by the dynamisms of the socio-political and economic conditions of the contemporary times,  coupled with the increasing migration that takes place in Africa.  As the ever increasing urban population lead to proliferation of cities, certain environmental, legal, institutional and other problems arise resulting in ineffective urban governance.  This paper therefore examined the problem issues that have negative impacts on urban governance in Africa.  Eeffective urban governance is  to be understood from the perspective of Associative Network model.  Data was basically drawn from secondary sources.  Findings showed that effective urban governance hinges on efficient local government through synergy and collaboration of all stake holders, multi level government, public /private partnership, greater space for public participation etc.

Keywords: Challenge, Governance, Issues, Urbanization, urban governance

Influence of Automobile Commercial Activities on Nnewi Urban Development, Nnewi North L.G.A, Anambra State. (Published)

This research work was based on the growth and impacts of emerged Automobile Commercial activities in Nnewi urban development.  The research methods data collection were well structured questionnaires, oral interview and observation by the researcher. The data presentation was done using tables, pie chart and bar charts .Chi-square statistical technique was adopted in the analysis of the data. The study revealed that emerged Automobile commercial activities has a lot of impacts on Nnewi urban development. It was discovered development of Nnewi started with  the establishment it. The urbanization of Nnewi as a result commercial and industrial activities has led to urbanization in Nnewi problems .This urbanization  problems such increase in crime and insecurity, lack of infrastructures  also affect the growth of economic activities in Nnewi .Based  on the findings the researcher recommended that insecurity issues should be tackled, provision of infrastructures  and proper urban planning should be done in Nnewi

Keywords: Automobile, Commercial Activities, Urban Development, Urbanization

Influence of Automobile Commercial Activities on Nnewi Urban Development, Nnewi North L.G.A, Anambra State. (Published)

This research work was based on the growth and impacts of emerged Automobile Commercial activities in Nnewi urban development.  The research methods data collection were well structured questionnaires, oral interview and observation by the researcher. The data presentation was done using tables, pie chart and bar charts .Chi-square statistical technique was adopted in the analysis of the data. The study revealed that emerged Automobile commercial activities has a lot of impacts on Nnewi urban development. It was discovered development of Nnewi started with the establishment it. The urbanization of Nnewi as a result commercial and industrial activities has led to urbanization in Nnewi problems .This urbanization problems such increase in crime and insecurity, lack of infrastructures also affect the growth of economic activities in Nnewi .Based on the findings the researcher recommended that insecurity issues should be tackled, provision of infrastructures and proper urban planning should be done in Nnewi

Keywords: Automobile, Commercial Activities, Infrastructures, Nigeria, Nnewi, Urban Development, Urbanization

Study on the Chemical and Biological Status of Malwatu Oya Basin, Anuradhapura in Sri Lanka. (Published)

Water pollution is a serious problem to the entire world. It threatens the health and wellbeing of humans, plants, and animals. With the advancement of communications and trade due to industrialization, accidental and purposive waste dumping, and uncontrolled use of water sources have contributed to the problem of water pollution in both surface water and the ground water. This study was mainly concerned with the evaluation of water quality of Malwathu Oya and its four basin tanks in the dry zone of Sri Lanka namely Nuwara wewa, Tissa wewa, Nachchaduwa wewa and Mahakanadarawe wewa in the Anuradhapura district using some selected water quality parameters. Malwathu Oya has been using as a source of drinking water for Anuradhapura. Eutrophication through the process of nutrient enrichment of stagnant waters due to urbanization & chemical added agricultural practices has been considered as the significant cause for water pollution in these areas. They cause algal blooms and release of toxic substances from species like cyanobacteria. Low Secchi Depth value and high chlorophyll a concentration indicate eutrophic nature of the Nuwarawewa and Tissawewa Lakes in dry periods. Malwathu oya too showed reasonably high Chlorophyll content during the same period. High nutrient loading was observed through the growth of phytoplankton species. Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii was the most dominant species recorded in the present study and Microcystis aeruginosa, Microcystis incerta, Pediastrum duplex. Merismo pediatenuissima, Melosira granulate and Diatomaelongata were also recorded from Nuwarawewa and Tissawewa during the study period. With respect to Physical and chemical parameters, very high turbidity, high nitrogen compounds ( Ammoinia, Nitrate, Nitrite), phosphate, total suspended solids, dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand were recorded in Nuwarawewa and Tissawewa due to the influence of human activities such as recreational , dumping wastes and agricultural practices. However data indicate that Nachchaduwa and Mahakandarawa lakes are well protected from above threats. At the same time Malwathuoya stream also showed the same kind of pollution pattern causing more critical situations for water treatment and water quality aspects. Therefore, an effective Lake Management and Lake monitoring programmes with integrated catchment management have to be adopted and it is a prior necessity in planning of the management practices of the catchments to get first hand information through this kind of research on these lakes.

Keywords: Coliforms, Eutrophication, Malwathuoya River Basin, Phytoplankton, Urbanization, Water Quality

The Nature of Peri-Urban Development in Lafia, Nasarawa State (Published)

This paper examines the characteristics of peri-urban areas in Lafia, a relatively new town by Nigeria’s account, but an important state capital, whose mineral resources, hospitality, administrative and educational status continue to drive its urban expansion. Peri urban areas in Lafia are by no means homogeneous, but area characterized by market-led medium density sporadic housing developments, lacking in basic infrastructure and facilities, employment opportunities and are poorly linked to the main town by transportation facilities. It is recommended that there is the need for more proactive involvement and intervention by various stakeholders in the management of peri urban areas to enhance their potentials and to address their peculiar problems.

Keywords: Challenges, Lafia, Peri Urban Areas, Urbanization, facilities

URBAN HEAT ISLAND RESEARCH OF ENUGU URBAN: A REVIEW (Published)

Urbanization is a defining phenomenon of this century. Nigeria cities like the rest of the entire continent of Africa are rated high on this urbanization process. But one side effect of this process is urban heat island (UHI). The aim of this study is to present the results of all published papers considering UHI investigation of Enugu urban and propose activities that will develop UHI research in the future. Literatures were identified for review through a comprehensive search by using electronic and non-electronic databases. Related published literature and documents were searched in a systematic way using a range of key words relating to urban heat island. The literature review indicates that urban heat island effect exists in Enugu urban. The review also indicates that urban heat island research in Enugu city has been on the lowest ebb. The study concluded by advocating that the long-term and effective monitoring of UHI changes is possible with the application of an installed (wireless) monitoring network.

Keywords: Paired measurement programme, Satellite, Temperature, Transect, Urban heat island, Urbanization

Housing the Urban Poor in Nigeria through Low-Cost Housing Schemes (Published)

This paper discusses a strategy and functional approach for the provision of low-cost housing for the urban poor in Nigeria. It notes the rapid rate of urbanization occurring in Nigeria, which is due mainly to massive rural-urban drift, and explosive urban population growth. A major consequence of this occurrence has been the deterioration of housing situation in the urban centres, manifested in severe shortages of housing units, and overcrowding in poor quality buildings that are situated in degraded environment. The urban poor constitute the vast majority of urban dwellers and they are in a disadvantaged economic position to build for themselves and are generally unable to make effective demand of existing housing. Housing this urban population is a major thrust of sustainable urban development. This paper asserts that a strategy for achieving the goal of adequately housing the urban poor is extensive mass housing development employing indigenous materials and methods, and involving the target population from policy making through programme execution. This is a bottom-up, participatory approach that will ensure the sustainability of the housing development. A case study, State Housing Estate, Oke-Ila, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria in which indigenous materials were used in some buildings, was examined in the paper. The paper also looks at experiments with indigenous materials in the construction of model low-cost houses, and these include the Pampomani Housing Estate in Maiduguri, Borno state, Nigeria, and Yakatsari resettlement scheme in Kano, Nigeria. The paper examines earth architecture as a relevant indigenous technology and recommends its use in housing the teeming poor majority in Nigerian urban centres.

Keywords: Approach, Housing, Poor, Strategies., Urbanization

Analysis of Poverty Level Among Urban Households in Irewole Local Government Area of Osun State (Published)

Poverty is multi-dimensional. It is characterized by lack of purchasing power, exposure to risk, malnutrition, high mortality rate, low life expectancy, insufficient access to social and economic services and few opportunities for income generation. This study was carried out in Irewole local government area of Osun state to determine the level of poverty in the study area. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency distribution, percentage, regression and Foster, Greer and Thorbecke (FGT) model. A total of 120 copies of questionnaire were administered for collection of information from respondent.The results from the analyzed data indicated that most of the respondents were middle-aged with mean age of approximately 38years, about 75.2% of the respondents are married, 86.0% of them had formal education. The mean income of the respondents was analyzed to be #57,590.91 and the mean per capita is ₦12,625.441, the poverty line was also analyzed to be #8,416.96, the poverty incidence of 36.36 percent shows the percentage of those that fell below the poverty line, the poverty depth of 7.2 percent shows that the income of the respondents needs to be raised by that percentage to move out of poverty, and the severity is 2.79 percent which implies that poverty exist but not so severe in the study area. The study recommends that more effort and resources should be devoted to poverty reduction programmes. However, there is need for the government to formulate and implement policies that will provide employment, housing, education, improved health care facilities and other things specifically for the urban poor.

Keywords: Irewole, Poverty Level, Unemployment, Urbanization