Tag Archives: Urban

The Rural To Urban Migration Decision in China: An Empirical Investigation (Published)

This paper explores the determinants of rural to urban migration decision in China. We use Logit models to examine the effect of a variety of different factors on individual migration choice. The empirical analysis is based on the data of Chinese Household Income Project (1995). We find that males are more likely to migrate. Age has an inverted-U shaped effect on migration. Marriage has a negative significant effect on migration. The rural individuals with professional school and middle professional school educational levels are less likely to migrate. Household head in the family is more likely to migrate. Membership of Communist Party or national ethnic minority has a negative effect on migration decision. Individuals with non-farm working experiences are more likely to migrate. Finally, some policy implications are derived based on the findings.   

Keywords: Human Capital Investment, Individual Characterises, Migration Decision, Rural, Urban

Assessment of Built Environment Quality in Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria (Published)

The interactions between man and environment determine both the quality of environment and as well as the quality of life that man lives. The feedback mechanisms of the interactions between man and environment are directly proportional. The increase in the number of urban dwellers is no more novel as over 50% of the world population resides in urban centers. This continuous and accidental increase in the number of urban dwellers with respect to their actions in the environment has played significant roles in the depletion of the quality of the environment. Since human health or wellbeing depends on the quality of his immediate environment, the focus on environmental quality emerged as a key area for research in urban and regional planning. This paper appraises the quality of the built environment in a steadily urbanizing traditional settlement in Ogbomoso North Local Government, Nigeria using selected environmental quality indicators while necessary recommendations are put forward to rejuvenate sickening built environment.

Keywords: Built, Depletion, Environment, Health, Human, Nigeria, Quality, Urban

Assessment and Control Measures of Flood Risk in Ajibode Area of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria (Published)

Flood is one of the major factors that prevent Africa’s population from escaping poverty level. The most hit by flood are usually urban poor who have less choice, but to end up living in flood prone areas. Ravaging flood events in Nigeria can be dated back to 1963 in Ibadan city, when Ogunpa River was over-flown causing loss of lives and properties. Many factors have been attributed as the resultant factors leading to floods in literature. This study thus assesses flood risk and its control measures in Ajibode area of Ibadan, Oyo state, while appropriate recommendations are made in order to reduce flood risk in the study area. In order to achieve this, questionnaires were administered through random systematic sampling technique to the household heads of 216 buildings from 720 buildings as the sampling frame of the study. Chi-square test reveals significant relationships between annual house rent and monthly income of the respondents with their vulnerability to flood with p-values of 0.00 and 0.04 respectively.

Keywords: Channelization, Control, Flood, Hazard, Measures, Nigeria, Risk, Urban, river

Xenophobia in Iraqi EFL Learning Context (Published)

This study is an attempt to investigate Iraqi EEL learners’ conception of xenophobia and whether it has a negative effect on their learning English as a foreign language. The study hypothesizes that: (1) it is fair to speculate that xenophobia has been at least partially responsible for hindering deep-level learning and students who undergo xenophobia are likely to be pessimistic as regards the foreign language, (2) learners’ attitudes toward English as a foreign language differs depending on whether they are rural or urban, (3) the disposition of female learners towards the term xenophobia differs in comparison to that of male learners. To this end, a questionnaire is administered to 50 Iraqi undergraduate EFL learners at the University of Babylon/College of Education for Human Sciences/Department of English during the academic year (2016-2017) by which students were asked to report on their perception and interpretation of the term xenophobia.

Keywords: EFL Learners’, Gender, Rural, Urban, xenophobia

A Study on the Diel Activity of Myriapods (Diplopoda, Chilopoda) In Natural and Anthropogenically Influenced Habitats (Published)

The present paper provides the results of a study on the diel activity of millipedes and centipedes from two different in terms of anthropogenic impact sites located in northeastern Bulgaria. The presumed differences in the diel activity of myriapods were tested using various statistical methods: the criterion of Kolmogorov, 2 criterion of uniformity, Pearson’s normalized correlation coefficients, and the multivariate regression analysis. . The results show that the diel surface activity of the established species depends on the degree of illumination (number of hours in a day), the air and the soil temperature. However, the activity was not affected by relative humidity, active seasons, and the degree of anthropogenic impact. The diurnal activity conducted in urban and natural habitats confirmed the nocturnal nature of the established species, which are most active in the time interval from 10:00 pm to 4:00 am. This activity is likely to have endogenous nature and it is controlled by internal physiological factors, but its duration may vary according to the changes in the environmental conditions.

Keywords: Activity, Bulgaria, Circadian Rhythms, Rural, Urban

Seasonal Analysis of Atmospheric Pollutants Concentrations in Urban and Rural Land use Areas of Rivers State, Nigeria. (Published)

The study examined the seasonal urban-rural difference in atmospheric pollutant concentration in Port Harcourt region. Sampling was performed at four different sites with two having urban and rural characteristics respectively, with the aid of multi-gas sampler and hand held weather tracker during the wet, transition and dry season from 2010-2011 on the bases of 24-hour continuous measurement. Data collected were analysed using t-test at p = 0.05. Findings showed that the pollutants (in urban and rural areas) with significant concentrations during the dry season were PM10 (384.0 ± 32.6 and 259µg/m3 ± 41.7 µg/m3), SO2 (1.4 ± 0.0 and 0 mg/m3 ± 0 mg/m3) and CH4 (61.4 ± 3.8 and 0 mg/m3 ± 0 mg/m3); while in the wet season they were PM10 (101 ± 4.7 and 33.6µg/m3 ± 0.7µg/m3), TSP (155.2 ± 15.5 and 42..3µg/m3 ± 1.2 µg/m3) and CO (26.2 ± 0.2 and 17.5 mg/m3 ± 0.4 mg/m3). For the transition period, the pollutants (in urban and rural areas) with significant concentrations were PM10 (215.7 ± 20.0 and 146.2 µg/m3 ± 19.2 µg/m3), TSP (287.7 ± 45 and 204.6µg/m3 ± 55.4 µg/m3), NO2 (0.2 ± 0.0 and 0mg/m3 ± 0mg/m3) and CH4 (20.5 ± 0.6 and 0.9mg/m3 ± 0.0mg/m3). The slashes and burn method of farm preparation and fuel wood which is used for cooking contributed to the high concentration of TSP, PM10 and CO during the dry season and this is why there was no significant difference in their concentration with the urban areas. In general however, there were significant differences in the mean concentrations of PM10, TSP, NO2, and CO; PM10, TSP, NO2 and CH4 during the wet, transition an dry seasons respectively at 95% significant level between the rural and urban areas for the seasons at p = 0.05. Regular monitoring of pollutants especially at the rural areas of Port Harcourt region with heavy hydrocarbon industrial foundations is advocated.

Keywords: Atmospheric Pollutants Concentration, Port Harcourt, Rural, Seasons, Urban

SEASONAL ANALYSIS OF ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS CONCENTRATIONS IN URBAN AND RURAL LANDUSE AREAS OF RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA. (Published)

The study examined the seasonal urban-rural difference in atmospheric pollutant concentration in Port Harcourt region. Sampling was performed at four different sites with two having urban and rural characteristics respectively, with the aid of multi-gas sampler and hand held weather tracker during the wet, transition and dry season from 2010-2011 on the bases of 24-hour continuous measurement. Data collected were analysed using t-test at p = 0.05. Findings showed that the pollutants (in urban and rural areas) with significant concentrations during the dry season were PM10 (384.0 ± 32.6 and 259µg/m3 ± 41.7 µg/m3), SO2 (1.4 ± 0.0 and 0 mg/m3 ± 0 mg/m3) and CH4 (61.4 ± 3.8 and 0 mg/m3 ± 0 mg/m3); while in the wet season they were PM10 (101 ± 4.7 and 33.6µg/m3 ± 0.7µg/m3), TSP (155.2 ± 15.5 and 42..3µg/m3 ± 1.2 µg/m3) and CO (26.2 ± 0.2 and 17.5 mg/m3 ± 0.4 mg/m3). For the transition period, the pollutants (in urban and rural areas) with significant concentrations were PM10 (215.7 ± 20.0 and 146.2 µg/m3 ± 19.2 µg/m3), TSP (287.7 ± 45 and 204.6µg/m3 ± 55.4 µg/m3), NO2 (0.2 ± 0.0 and 0mg/m3 ± 0mg/m3) and CH4 (20.5 ± 0.6 and 0.9mg/m3 ± 0.0mg/m3). The slashes and burn method of farm preparation and fuel wood which is used for cooking contributed to the high concentration of TSP, PM10 and CO during the dry season and this is why there was no significant difference in their concentration with the urban areas. In general however, there were significant differences in the mean concentrations of PM10, TSP, NO2, and CO; PM10, TSP, NO2 and CH4 during the wet, transition an dry seasons respectively at 95% significant level between the rural and urban areas for the seasons at p = 0.05. Regular monitoring of pollutants especially at the rural areas of Port Harcourt region with heavy hydrocarbon industrial foundations is advocated.

Keywords: Atmospheric Pollutants Concentration, Port Harcourt, Rural, Seasons, Urban

Confusing Violent People with Violent Places: An Investigation Of Urban Change And Criminality In Port Harcourt (Review Completed - Accepted)

Indeed some works on urban settlement and crime are skeptical that specific places can be considered a category capable of differentiating social groups base on their controversial status in other sub-areas of sociology, the twin concept of study of crime and urban communities remain important. Social inequality that shared perceptions of social deprivation have been instrumental in creating a distinct community based collective psychological reaction. It is this specific psychological reaction which in theory has made shanty dwellers more aggressive than non-shanty dwellers. In this paper, we show how spatial inequality goes about constructing difference based on a collective psychological reaction to social deprivation. To do this, the study used some assumptions on key variable ‘crime’, income’ and ‘class’. Using regress and regression micro fit 4.1 statistical package, the study revealed that crime in Port Harcourt is not tied to spatial phenomenon but based on the prevalence of certain social forces which determine the dimension and magnitude of crime. The study recommends the inclusion of urban poor in government housing development plan

Keywords: Change, Criminality, People, Port Harcourt, Urban, Violent, Violent Places’

Pattern of Fencing and Impacts in Urban Auchi, Edo State, Nigeria (Published)

This study examines the pattern and impact of fencing in Auchi, Edo State Nigeria. The objectives among others identified the compliance to fence standards and the role of the planning authorities in the area. Data for this study were generated from primary and secondary sources. Questionnaires, field measurements and interviews were the major tools for data collections. The study observed that very many houses were fenced in the area but the fencing was without observance to building codes and standard. While some fences were constructed right on and over the right of ways, some were seen to be too high. This pattern of fencing was found to be having negative impacts on the development of Auchi. Among the impacts were traffic congestion, accidents, erosion and flooding and poor aesthetics. The study also observed that the planning authority in the area were not up to their responsibility in the control of development in Auchi. Among the recommendations given to correct this pattern of development were urban renewal exercise and the making of a master plan which will comprehensively guide the area for sustainable physical development.

Keywords: Edo, Fence, Impacts, Nigeria, Pattern, Urban