Talk-show classes require both teachers and learners to get engaged in meaningful interactions while drawing attention to language on a temporary and needs-driven basis incidentally. The current study sought to explore the rate of reactive and preemptive focus on form (FonF) and their linguistic coverage in a talk-show class. It also explored the relationship between the linguistic coverage of reactive and preemptive focus on form episodes (FFEs) and the rate of uptake as an indicator of the effectiveness of focus on form episodes. To this end, 8 hours of classroom interactions between a teacher and his 16 male students in an intermediate talk-show class, with the primary attention on negotiation of ideas, were observed and audio-recorded to identify the linguistic coverage of both preemptive and reactive FFEs in terms of vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation along with their subsequent uptake instances. The findings revealed that reactive FFEs were the most frequent type of incidental FonF and linguistic focus of reactive and preemptive FFEs were primarily oriented toward grammar and vocabulary respectively. Regarding uptake, this study found that uptake happened in all linguistic categories in more than 50 percent of all FFEs and its occurrence took place more in the case of the reactive FFEs than the preemptive ones.
UPTAKE OF CHROMIUM (VI) ON ACTIVATED Delonix regia LEAVES AND BARK:THE BINARY ISOTHERM AND KINETICS (Review Completed - Accepted)
The use of low-cost, locally available and eco-friendly adsorbents has been investigated as an ideal method of controlling waste. In this paper,activated Delonix regia leaves(DRL), Delonix regia tree bark(DRB) and combined Delonix regia leaves and bark (DRBL) have been used as biosorbents for the removal of Chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions. The biosorption studies were carried out using each biosorbent singly and the combination of the two in equimolar proportions respectively. The concentrations of the metal ions uptook were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopic (AAS) method. Biosorption experiments were performed as a function of pH, contact time, particle size, biosorbent dosage, temperature, initial concentration of the biosorbate. The maximum removal of chromium(VI) was obtained at pH 2 after two hours. Kinetics data obtained in this study fitted satisfactorily to the pseudo-first-order rate equation for all the biosorbents, suggesting that the biosorption process is chemisorption. The experimental equilibrium data were tested for Langmuir and Freundlich models, and the Freundlich model fitted better for all the biosorbents with correlation coefficient (R2) ranges 0.997 – 0.999. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy evaluated from experimental data predict the nature of the uptake, revealed that uptake of Chromium (VI) was endothermic at 25 0 C. The results show that a large proportion of Chromium (VI) was uptook at higher percentage when the combined form of the biosorbents was used as compared to when the biosorbents were used singly.