Environmental Adult Education Programmes for Promotion of Sustainable Agricultural Methods/Practices among Crop Farmers in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria: An Empirical Study (Published)
Unsustainable agricultural/farming methods/practices (such as slash-and-burn, felling of trees and shrubs and application of chemical fertilizers and insecticides) by crop farmers in the Southern Region of Nigeria are known to have been doing a lot of harm to the soil, the environment and even the health of the farmers themselves. The purpose of this study was to identify, through an empirical/participatory process, the unsustainable methods/practices mostly adopted by the farmers (with focus on those from Abak and Etinan Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Akwa Ibom State), as well as the Environmental Adult Education (EAE) programmes that would make the farmers adopt sustainable methods/practices which would increase their occupational outputs as well as protect their environment and personal health. Four Research Questions and one Null Hypothesis guided the study. 222 (40%) of the 554 registered crop farmers in the two LGAs were selected for the study through proportionate random sampling. Percentages, means, standard deviation and the T-test were the statistical methods used to analyze the data obtained through a structured Questionnaire developed by the researchers. Based on the responses of the farmers, a number of EAE programmes were identified for achieving the purpose stated above. The researchers have strongly recommended implementation of the programmes as well as guidelines for effecting the implementation.
Inauthenticity in Development: A Philosophical Study of Nigerian Unsustainable Development (Published)
Every sustainable development rests on the indigenous valuable industries and institutions. It is these industries and institutions that foster indigenous productions and export of goods and services. These industries and institutions are products of indigenous scientific knowledge, theorem and technology which are authentic basis of sustainable development. Thus, inconsistency with the indigenous traditional scientific and technological feats amounts to inauthentic and unsustainable development which is the trouble with Nigeria. Hence, 57 seven years after independence, Nigerian is still laden with poor achievements, consumerism and collapse of public institutions and structures. Such unsustainable development has in recent time enhanced unemployment, poverty, hardship, death, agitation, militancy and instability. Against this backdrop, this paper analytically examines the rationale behind Nigerian unsustainable development, its philosophical foundation and implications. It as well proffers axiological solutions to the incessant inauthentic and unsustainable development in Nigeria. The research however finds that inauthentic development is Nigerian conspicuous predicament and the bedrock of her unsustainable development. This is as most areas of her development do not derive from her cultural values, productions and services. Worst still, most incorporated foreign feats do not also cohere with her indigenous autochthonous nature and personhood. The paper therefore concludes that indigenous environment and culture provide people with a base for development as well as valuable materials that can sustainably be developed. As such, sustainable development can only occur when it is built from and on the existent traditional values, needs, productions, services and materials.