This work was aimed at evaluating the proximate composition, some anti-nutritional factors and functional properties of composite flour produced from wheat, pigeon pea and unripe plantain. Four blends of composite flour were formulated by homogeneously mixing wheat flour, pigeon pea flour and plantain flour in the proportion of 95:5:0 (WPF), 85:10:5 (WPU1), 75:15:10 (WPU2), 65:20:15 (WPU3), respectively, while WHF represented 100% wheat flour served as control. The result of proximate composition signified that there were significant (p<0.05) increases in crude protein (13.25-16.10%), moisture (6.30-10.41%), ash (0.62-1.69%) and crude fibre (0.42-1.13%) content with the inclusion of pigeon pea and plantain flours. Significance reductions in crude lipid (2.84-1.82%) and carbohydrate (76.56-68.85%) contents were observed while energy value was not significantly (p>0.05) different from the control. The anti-nutrient composition of the blends showed significant reduction of HCN (10.71-8.87 mg/100g), oxalate (180.08-90.04 mg/100g) and tannin (13.02-10.23 mg/100g) contents while highest value (1.35 mg/100g) of phytate was observed in WPU2. Bulk density, foaming, water absorption and oil absorption capacities ranged 1.20-1.30 g/ml, 3.70-13.79%, 6.20-6.60 g/g, 6.00-6.40 ml/ml, respectively while swelling index ranged 28.50-32.00 ml/ml. This study showed that fortifying wheat flour with pigeon pea and plantain flours is a significant way of improving nutritive quality, especially the protein and also increased the functionality of the blends when compared with the control.
Quality Characteristics Of Cakes Prepared From Wheat And Unripe Plantain Flour Blends Enriched With Bambara Groundnut Protein Concentrate (Published)
Cakes were produced from the substitution levels of wheat/plantain flour blends (0 – 100% and 0 – 70%), respectively and enriched with 0 – 30% levels of Bambara groundnut protein concentrate (BGPC). Quality characteristics of the resultant product was analysed to ascertain its sensory, physical and chemical properties. Acceptable cakes were produced from 70% wheat flour, 20% plantain flour and 10% BGPC with regards to colour which compared favourably with sample A (100% WF) except F and G samples which differs significantly with other samples. The texture of the cakes was also acceptable but F and G samples (6.5 and 6.4), respectively shows significant difference (p < 0.05) compared to others. The taste and overall acceptability were not significantly different at all levels of BGPC enrichment compared to sample A. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in all the samples in terms of the height except sample B with the value of 2.5cm. Highest weight of 194.2g was observed for sample B which was significantly different (p < 0.05) compared to other samples. Increase in BGPC further improved the volume and specific volume of the cake to 524cm3 and 3.19cm3/100g (sample G), respectively. A reduction in the values of carbohydrate, moisture and energy content of the cakes were observed at increased levels of protein concentrate. Protein content of the cakes was observed to improve progressively at increasing levels of enrichment and showed significant differences up to sample D (10.4%) while the highest protein value was reported at sample G (13.2%) with 30% protein concentrate. This confirms that the developed cakes have a better nutritional value than the control and could be used to combat protein energy – malnutrition.