Based on the principle of symmetry, this paper extends the general relativity’s description of space’s curvature and expansion to the conclusion that space has density. On this basis, the relation between the increment of spatial density and the spectral redshift of light propagating in space is deduced according to the conservation relation of space-time in special relativity. In addition, according to the description of the space structure of gravitational mass and charge in the material space theory. The increased space due to the existence of charge is calculated, and the relationship between the linear density of protons and the spectral redshift on the observation path is deduced. Finally, the relationship between the spectral redshift due to spatial density and the regression velocity of the galaxy is obtained： . Through calculation, the Hubble constant generated by the space density is (114.02793Km/s) /Mpc, which is basically consistent with the observed results. The results show that the observed acceleration expansion of the universe is an illusion caused by the spectral redshift due to the space density of the universe. The universe is not accelerating expansion.
Nature School Learning Model (Case Study at the School of Universe, Lebak Wangi Village, Parung District, Bogor Regency) (Published)
This study aimed to: (1) examine the nature school learning model at the School of Universe, Lebak Wangi Village, Parung District, Bogor Regency, (2) analyze the factors supporting the success of the learning model at the School of Universe, Lebak Wangi Village, Parung District, Bogor Regency. This study used a qualitative approach with a case study method. Data collection techniques carried out in this study were: interviews, observation and documentation. Data analysis in this study used interactive models of Miles and Huberman, with steps: data reduction, data model, conclusion and verification. The findings of the study showed that: (1) the learning model in the School of Universe using the spider webb learning model was done by determining the theme. Fields of study in thematic approaches included Science, Mathematics, Indonesian, Social, Green Lab, Cooking, Business, and Morals, (2) the factors supporting the success of the learning model at SD School of Universe were: qualified teachers, the methods used included: exemplary methods, natural learning methods, outbound methods, business methods, adequate facilities and infrastructure, including teacher reading resources to add insight and produce the latest innovations in the field of education, as well as parental supports. The findings of this study were recommended to be applied in conventional schools by collaborating the curriculum with school of universe typical learning model.