Tag Archives: United States

Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA): Interrogating the Legal Status of JCPOA and Contextualizing the Legal Implication of United States’ Withdrawal (Published)

On 9th May 2018, President Donald Trump pulled the U.S. out of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) or Iran Nuclear Deal which is fruit of thirteen years of negotiations between Iran and world powers on Iran’s nuclear program. The JCPOA, since its creation, raised question whether it is a treaty or just a non-binding international instrument. This study is aimed at offering an investigation on this question. After examining all elements of a treaty, we found out that it’s rather a treaty under international law; and, we concluded that as a matter of international law; it is breach of the Article 56 of Vienna Convention on Law of Treaties (VCLT) as well as violation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 2231 (2015); and, therefore, the withdrawal is contrary to international law.

Keywords: International law, Iran, JCPOA, United States, Vienna Convention on Law of Treaties

The Influence of Mastery Orientation among African Undergraduate Students in the USA on Achievement of Possible Selves: An Analysis of Demographic Factors (Published)

Students’ focus being in control of tasks within their environment enables the desire to acquiring new knowledge an aspect that is key to academic performance. Mastery oriented students are usually in control and tend to be more satisfied with their work than those who are influenced by other external performance indicators like marks or scores. They will therefore get involved in mainly those activities that will add to their knowledge. This paper, taking this aspect into consideration explains the influence of mastery orientation among African undergraduate students living in the United States on their achievement of possible selves. The study was carried out in institutions of higher learning in the United States. It involved undergraduate students registered in any of the semesters in the Spring semester, 2007 and the year 2006. The study consisted of a conveniently sampled size of 204 students drawn from undergraduate programs in four schools in the Southeast United States. Data collection was done by means of a questionnaire which was later subjected to analysis through descriptive means and multiple regression. The demographic variables identified in the study included age, length of stay, subject majors, school classification, financial support by family and schools. It was concluded that these aspects positively influenced achievement of possible selves as the higher the variable the significant the influence it had on the students.

Keywords: Acculturation, African students, Demographics, Mastery orientation, Possible Selves, Self Identity, United States

Relationship between Racial Ethnic Identity as a Determinant of Possible Selves and Goal Orientation of African Undergraduate Students in the United States (Published)

Many students often fall short of their goals despite their great aspirations to academic achievement. One of the factors to this impediment especially among the Africans increasingly arriving in the United States is segregation which impairs racial-ethnic identity evoking stigma. This minority group is however yet to be studied probably by sheer ignorance or because of their racial homogenization with African Americans. Indeed this conflation ignores the vast socio-cultural and historical differences. This paper examines the relationship between racial-ethnic identity as a determinant of possible selves and goal orientation of African undergraduate students in the United States. The paper thus intends to identify the manner in which racial-ethnicity shapes what goals the African students in the US set for themselves. A sample of 204 students was conveniently drawn from undergraduate programs in four schools (two from Alabama and two from Georgia) in the Southeast United States. The students comprised black African undergraduate students irrespective of their immigration statuses. Using goal orientation Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales (PALS) and Racial- Ethnic Identity Assessment (REIA) data was collected after which was subjected to descriptive and multiple regression methods for analysis.  The study found out that there is no relationship between racial ethnic identity and goal orientations.

Keywords: African Undergraduate Students, Goal Orientation, Immigrants, Multiple identities, Racial-Ethnic Identity, United States

The North Korean Nuclear Crisis: An Assessment of the Legal Justification of the Use of Force by the United States (Published)

Since the outbreak of North Korean nuclear crisis, there have been many calls on the United States government to apply tougher measures on the DPRK to deal with its provocations and defiance on the Non-Nuclear Proliferation Regime. Tougher measures on North Korea include sanctions and the use of force. However, any eventual use of force by the United States on North Korea will be illegal if it does not meet the criteria of the Caroline Doctrine that requires that anticipatory self-defense be both necessary and proportional. Furthermore, any use of force that goes beyond the Caroline Doctrine will undermine the Articles 2 and 51 of the United Nations Charter that allows war only in self-defense. Given the fact that any use of force on North Korea will challenge the normative basis on which global society has been supported, it is imperative to solve the nuclear crisis through negotiations by continuing the Six Party Talks, with a commitment not only on the part of the DPRK to give up its nuclear program but also on the United States to sign a Non-Aggression Pact with Pyongyang that replaces the armistice of 1953, so as to assure that its survival as a State will not be at stake.

Keywords: Legal, North Korean, Nuclear Crisis, United States, Use of Force