Tag Archives: Unemployment

Understanding Graduate Employability: A Case of a Selected Higher Education Institution in Botswana (Published)

The issue of graduate employment has generated a lot of debate and has become a phenomenal theme of discourse across professional gatherings, political rallies, media, commentary reviews, national economic debates and social networks. In the context of Botswana, studies also show that the country is currently suffering from the twin challenges of shrinking economy and unemployment with the current national unemployment being pegged at 18% and rising while youth unemployment alone is at 34%. It is against this background that this study has been carried out to examine the employment status of graduates at a selected higher education institution in Botswana. A quantitative approach that employed a structured questionnaire was used in the study to collect data from a sample of 250 graduates who graduated between 2007 and 2014. Convenience sampling strategy was used to select the sample of respondents. Data collected was analysed using SPSS version 21. Results of the study showed that 65.3% of the students who graduated between 2007 and 2014 at the selected higher education institution are employed. The study further showed that graduates felt that some of the reasons for delayed employment had nothing to do with skills mismatch, experience or competition in the market but as a result of other issues. It was also shown in the study that the main method of seeking for employment was through the use of curriculum vitae (CVs)

Keywords: Employability, Graduate, Hard Skills, Soft Skills, Unemployment

Entrepreneurship Education in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions: A Remedy to Graduates Unemployment (Published)

Study investigated exposure of under-graduates students to entrepreneurial education for post-graduation job creation ability. The population consisted all the final year students of Educational Administration, Ebonyi state University 2013/2014 academic year totaling 200 respondents. The population served as the sample size. The instrument was a structured questionnaire, subjected to face and content validation by experts in Educational Administration; Measurement and Evaluation units, test for reliability yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.79. Pearson Product Moment Correlation (r) statistics and population t-test of analysis were used to analyze the data at 0.05 alpha level. The findings showed a significant relationship in the three hypotheses. The result implies that entrepreneurial education is relevant to students with regard to equipping them with skills for post-graduation job creation ability rather than job seekers. The study recommended collaborative efforts of National University Commission with Department of Educational Administration to identify other entrepreneurship programmes to address graduate unemployment on graduation.

Keywords: Entrepreneurial Skills, Entrepreneurship education, Innovation and Competency., Job Creation, Unemployment

The Educated Youth Unemployment Debacle in Zimbabwe: An Evaluation of the Impact of Intervention Programmes (Published)

This study was an evaluation of the intervention programmes which were put in place by the Government of Zimbabwe (GoZ) and its cooperating partners to address youth unemployment with specific reference to educated youths. Such a study was viewed as critical because it informs policy on what needs to be done correctly or improved in future endeavours to avoid repeating the same mistakes given that educated youth unemployment continues to rise in Zimbabwe. The study took the form of a survey in which 955 unemployed educated youths selected from the country’s ten provinces using multi-stage sampling techniques were used as respondents. The study found out that the intervention programmes did not achieve the desired impact as judged by most of the respondents who were supposed to be beneficiaries. Most respondents indicated that they had never heard about the existence of most of the fifteen intervention programmes identified in this research. The study recommended transparency through marketing initiatives which targeted youths in their final years of full-time education. The study found out that the intervention programmes were not adequately funded and this caused the selection of beneficiaries difficult leading to lack of trust with most intended beneficiaries suspecting corruption. Given the magnitude of the unemployment problem among educated youths, it was also recommended that Government and its cooperating partners should adequately fund the intervention programmes so that they achieve the desired impact of reducing the educated youth unemployment debacle.

Keywords: Intervention Programmes, Unemployment, Youth Unemployment

Economic Growth and Unemployment in Fiji: A Cointegration Analysis (Published)

Fiji has been experiencing high unemployment rate since 1990s. Unemployment has become increasingly more pronounced from 2000 due to the political instability, expiry of land leases and operational problems in garment and gold industry. On the other hand, there was a surge in number of graduates following the establishment of two new universities. Additionally a sharp decline in investment in the post coup years of 2000 ensued, contributing to further increase in unemployment rate and sluggish economic growth. This paper seeks to investigate whether long run association among growth and unemployment is relevant for Fiji for the period 1982-2012. Johansen Cointegration test procedure has been applied to ascertain the assocaition among growth, investment and unemployment. Result confirmed the evidence of long-run association among unemployment and growth, with cointegration running from investment and unemployment to increase in economic output. Economic policies should gear towards improving investment.

Keywords: Fiji, Unemployment, economic growth, investmnent


Unemployment and poverty are both reflective and precipitants of plethora of contemporary societal challenges such as leadership, security, governance, etc. that are inimical to human social – existence (for engendering adequate human capacity building and material utilisation) globally. For instance, the National Bureau of Statistics in Nigeria revealed the alarming rate of youth unemployment which is as much as 50%. Considering the fact that, the current population growth rate is put at 2.8 per annum in Nigeria which accompanies an already national population of over 167 million people. Therefore, the extent to which these challenges possess to the nation is remarkably worrisome in recent times, is the escalating and worrisome rate of youth unemployment which has assumed an alarming crescendo. It is against this backdrop, the paper sees to its justification the need to see to its imperativeness with a view of given cogent attention for their needs. Hence, this paper examines “the intimate connection between unemployment and poverty, and how these two phenomena affect the youth in Nigeria”. In order to fulfill the objectives of this paper, relevant literature were consulted and established database explored for holistic and comparative study, to illustrate the mitigation and enabling factors for the realization of the objectives of youth employment and poverty alleviation if not total eradication in the society – Nigeria. With the aid of content analyses of the materials explored: this paper contend that fundamentally, there is a close nexus between poverty and unemployment with direct bearings on the critical segment of the society, particularly the youth. Also, inspite of the myriad policies and programmes initiated by successive Nigerian government such as National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS), Subsidy Re-Investment and Empowerment Programme (SURE-P), National Directorate of Employment (NDE), National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) Schemes in Nigeria, as lofty and laudable as they seem, their inability to affect the real target (youth), reflects the lacuna between policy formulation and implementation. The thrust of this paper therefore is its strong proposition to government at all levels to demonstrate a commitment towards responsive governance, with focus on jobs creation and eradication of poverty. In addition, appropriate authorities should endeavor to sensitize the citizens on the need to embrace birth control measures for the purpose of engendering sustainable development.

Keywords: Population and Development, Poverty, Unemployment, Youth


This paper focused on preparing globally minded accounting graduates through modern accounting curriculum. Three hypotheses were formulated and tested. The population of the study comprised six hundred and two (602) accounting lecturers and students selected from both private and public Universities in Nigeria of which three hundred and one (301) were purposively sampled. Structured questionnaire of 35 items was used as instrument for data collection. It was validated by three research experts and the Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient was used to establish the reliability of the instrument which yielded coefficient value of 0.91. The Mean of the responses with their standard deviation was used to answer the research questions. The student’s t-test statistic was used to test the three hypotheses at 0.05 level a significance, using Eview statistical software. The study reveals that modern techniques of the practice of accounting are not yet included into the accounting curriculum of the selected Universities in Nigeria. It also discovers that emphasis is heavily placed on paper qualification of the lecturers with little or no emphasis on the practical demonstration and ability of the lecturers to impact knowledge into the students. It also reveals that in order to enhance practical skills of accounting graduates, practical exposure of the students is important for them to be relevant in a global economy. The study recommends regular training and retraining of accounting lecturers on modern techniques of the practice of accounting to enhance contemporary knowledge of accounting graduates in the global market. Based on the findings and recommendations, the paper concludes that for the massive unemployment situation being experienced by accounting graduates in the developing countries to reduce, there is the urgent need to equip the graduates with relevant marketable skills that will make them relevant in the global labour market.

Keywords: Accounting Curriculum, Accounting Students, Nigeria Universities, Unemployment


The issue of graduate unemployment has been in the front burner of discourse in the nation in recent years with the churning out of graduate’s year in, year out clogging further the labour market. Even with the large number of unemployed graduates in the country, employers of labour still find it difficult to fill the existing few vacancies that crop up from time to time because these graduates are often found unemployable. They lack certain requisite skills for sustainable employment. These skills create a gap in their knowledge which should have been embedded in the curriculum used in the process of training them. From the literature reviewed, the paper looked into what the employers actually want, recognising the gaps in the required skills and how these can be incorporated into the curriculum the students are exposed to before they graduate. This curriculum should expose them to skills apart from technical and professional skills that will make them employable or make them self-employed, reducing greatly the number of unemployed people in the nation. This will stem the tide of rising social menace in the country often created by joblessness, which if not addressed can threaten the stability of the nation

Keywords: Employability, Employability Skills, Entrepreneurship, Skills-Gap, Unemployment


This paper investigated the association between unemployment and human security provisioning using ordinary least square estimator of regression analysis. Unemployment was measured using unemployment rate while human security provisioning was measured by; food security, purchasing power parity and poverty rate. This study adopted a comparative survey research design. Both primary and Secondary data were used. The outcomes of the study show that Food security had an inverse relationship with youth unemployment in the Gambia while Purchasing power parity had a significant effect on unemployment rate in Nigeria. In both countries, there is a high positive association between youth unemployment and human security provisioning. Moreover, the study found empirically that the key factor responsible for youth vulnerability is lack of subsistence occasioned by unemployment. Therefore, it has become more pertinent that the government of Nigeria and the Gambia developed a pragmatic approach in reducing youth unemployment as a strategy for reducing the incidence of human trafficking

Keywords: Human Security, Human Trafficking, Unemployment, Youth


Economic security being an ingredient for growth and development, makes no sense if job creation is not an outcome. Hence, this study examined the interplay of entrepreneurship education and urgent social intervention in order to reduce unemployment incidence in Nigeria. This simple descriptive survey design study provided a baseline information for policy-management on education in order to enhance productivity of citizens in Nigeria. Secondary data from National Bureau of Statistics and other data sources were obtained to answer four research questions raised for the study. Data analysis was effected with sample descriptive statistics and tables. Results obtained revealed: high rate of unemployment (across education levels and age groups), low level of entrepreneurship education, high prospects of entrepreneurship education in poverty alleviation and increase employment opportunities; and a tripatriate government intervention in their policies and programmes in order to create employment opportunities for citizens. Therefore, it was recommended that policymakers should emphasize entrepreneurship education at all levels of education while government should invest more on public goods for job opportunities in Nigeria.

Keywords: Education, Entrepreneurship, Intervention, Security, Unemployment


The majority of Nigeria population, the poor people in affluent society, is enmeshed in the net of poverty. The Nigerian government seem to have failed in its contractual obligation to respect and sustain its social contract with the people. There is a seemingly total collapse of social security, increase in unemployment rate and consequently inbreed of youth restiveness. This study sets out to investigate the relationship between unemployment, poverty and insecurity of lives and properties in the country. The primary objective of this article is to ascertain whether the increased wave of violence in Nigeria is as a result of unemployment and poverty. The study underscores that unemployment and poverty are universal phenomena, not necessarily a peculiar characteristic of any particular segment of the society. The research revealed that unemployment and poverty have direct link to security challenges in Nigeria. There is need for a radical reform in the areas of skill acquisition centres, agricultural development scheme for creation of employment opportunities and holistic restructuring of peace building mechanisms to curb these social ills and reposition the drifting nation to a more purposeful track.

Keywords: Insecurity of Lives and Properties, Poverty, Unemployment, Violence

Curbing Graduate Unemployment in Nigeria: Case of Cross River State. (Review Completed - Accepted)

The plum arising from Nigeria’s large oil-cash receipts has informed a neglect of Agriculture, Skill/Innovation and Entrepreneurship which would evolve an industrial state with the capacity to absorb her teeming youth population. Worse still, the country’s education system is tailored along lines that produce graduates lacking requisite mental infrastructure and experience and therefore making them misfits in the economy. The paper explores ways of curbing Nigeria’s unemployment dilemma, emphasizing the educationist point of view; we specifically investigated the proximate causes of graduate unemployment in Nigeria using Cross River State as our case study. Random sampling procedures are adopted to survey six Local Government Areas across the three senatorial districts in the state. Results reveal an inverse relationship between skill acquisition/innovation, entrepreneurship, economic diversification and unemployment. It is recommended that public policy should emphasize technical/vocational education leading to self-reliance and self-employment, innovation and entrepreneurship, while effort should be made to reduce corruption and institutional bottlenecks at all levels of government.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Self-reliance, Technical Education, Unemployment

Analysis of Poverty Level Among Urban Households in Irewole Local Government Area of Osun State (Published)

Poverty is multi-dimensional. It is characterized by lack of purchasing power, exposure to risk, malnutrition, high mortality rate, low life expectancy, insufficient access to social and economic services and few opportunities for income generation. This study was carried out in Irewole local government area of Osun state to determine the level of poverty in the study area. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency distribution, percentage, regression and Foster, Greer and Thorbecke (FGT) model. A total of 120 copies of questionnaire were administered for collection of information from respondent.The results from the analyzed data indicated that most of the respondents were middle-aged with mean age of approximately 38years, about 75.2% of the respondents are married, 86.0% of them had formal education. The mean income of the respondents was analyzed to be #57,590.91 and the mean per capita is ₦12,625.441, the poverty line was also analyzed to be #8,416.96, the poverty incidence of 36.36 percent shows the percentage of those that fell below the poverty line, the poverty depth of 7.2 percent shows that the income of the respondents needs to be raised by that percentage to move out of poverty, and the severity is 2.79 percent which implies that poverty exist but not so severe in the study area. The study recommends that more effort and resources should be devoted to poverty reduction programmes. However, there is need for the government to formulate and implement policies that will provide employment, housing, education, improved health care facilities and other things specifically for the urban poor.

Keywords: Irewole, Poverty Level, Unemployment, Urbanization