Tag Archives: Underdevelopment

Dependency and Underdevelopment of Nigerian Economy (Published)

“Dependency and Underdevelopment of Nigerian economy” was developed to examine the state of Nigeria’s political and economic underdevelopment, in the course of her dependence on the Western Capitalist World. ‘’My people have been successfully managing their political system before the advent of the whites in Africa, and even the presence of whites brought distortion to the African political and economic system’’ (Kwame Nkruma, 1957). Prior to the incursion of the British in Nigeria, the country was no doubt with the capacity of organized institutions which were put in place for smooth governance. Obviously, most of these political systems were independent of one another, and were self-reliant. Historically, a lot of facts were gathered and supported by scholars that African societies, before the coming of the whites were not underdeveloped because they were able to develop within their capacity based on their agricultural economy. “Dependency and underdevelopment of Africa Nigeria inclusive, is unveiled by successive phenomena such as slave trade, capitalism, colonialism, imperialism and neo-colonialism. It should be noted, however, that the countries that are depending on the rest are mostly poor countries of the third world, Nigeria is a typical poor third world country and underdeveloped that depends on the western world for decision and implementation of economic development of the west to her own detriment. In the light of the consideration therefore, this research work is designed to identify the historical forces which led to Nigeria’s dependency and underdevelopment. It is also the aim of the study to examine the relationship of the western economies and the third world economies, and to study the crucial concepts that are closely related to the problems of dependency and underdevelopment. Specifically, it will investigate the major causes of political and economic dependency in Nigeria, cum the impacts or the roles of the Nigerian elites in the course of Nigerian dependency and underdevelopment. Thus, also fashion out pragmatic hypotheses that would address the major menace, roles, and impacts of multinationals on the economic dependency and underdevelopment of Nigerian State.

Keywords: Dependency, Nigerian Economy, Underdevelopment

African Theories of Development and the Reality of Underdevelopment (Published)

The urge for the development of the African continent immediately after independence pushed the immediate post-colonial African leaders into experimenting different kinds of developmental systems. Some of these leaders copied the Western systems in operation at that time whereas some others adapted and adopted them. The successors of these post-colonial leaders also followed this trend. All these efforts could not bring the desired development as a result of one basic factor – dependence index. It is an existential fact that no country or continent ever developed by majorly depending on others. The key to development is real ‘ independence’. Equally true is that no country/continent ever developed without the production of materials and goods. Being a consumer nation or continent is to invariably jettison development. This paper calls for ‘ inward looking’ in the developmental efforts of the African continent and minimally look outward.

Keywords: Africa, Development, Leaders, Underdevelopment

IMPERIALISM AND ECONOMIC UNDERDEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA: A STUDY OF SUDAN (Published)

This work attempts to examine the connection between imperialism and the socio-economic challenges that have hindered development in post-independence Sudan. With data derived extensively from secondary source materials on the subject, the paper reveals that the Sudanese have been victims of the struggles among contending imperialist powers in the country, which has over the years, resulted in political destabilisation and economic stagnation in the country. The contention of this paper is that while Anglo-Egyptian imperialism, laid the foundation for the present political and economic turmoil experienced in the country, the trend has been sustained in recent times, by China-US rivalry for the control of Sudan’s oil industry. The paper further reveals that the recent media propaganda and economic sanctions of the US against the Sudanese government in Khartoum, is not a humanitarian gesture. Rather it is part of US Strategy to force the regime of Omar Al-Bashir to sever economic and diplomatic ties with China, who is a major threat to US economic interest in the country. The paper concludes by stating that unless constitutionalism, the rule of law and true nationalism is promoted in the region, the Sudanese (both North and South) would remain pliant and amenable to the interest and subtle machination of contemporary imperialist powers

Keywords: Africa, Imperialism, Sudan, Underdevelopment

THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO THE UNDERSTANDING OF AFRICA’S POLITICS AND THE CHALLENGES OF DEVELOPMENT (Published)

The paper discusses conceptual and theoretical approaches to Africa politics such as the Modernization School; Marxian School; and the Statist School of thought vis-à-vis development and underdevelopment paradigm. The paper uncovers critical argument in various schools of thought, the variables that have caused relative development and severe-underdevelopment in Africa society at present and in the past respectively. Using Nigeria as a point of departure and melting-point, it will critically and objectively identify the problems and challenges of development in Africa and offer suggestions that will move Africa further along the path of development. The paper is aim to write-off the general belief that contemporary Africa countries are poor or underdeveloped due to neo-colonialism or imperialism that has been advance by Marxian scholars and Africa-nationalist in different underdeveloped literature. It has been a contending issue whether formal colonised Africa states can develop? Consequently, the paper concluded with statist school of thought attributing underdevelopment (poverty, unemployment, communal clashes, the rise of ethnic militia and militancy and so no) due to the problem of corruption and failure of governmental policies implementation in Africa created by Africa’s leaders. However, the paper is limited to issues of development and underdevelopment within colonised Africa states and in achieving the above objectives, the paper rely on secondary data. Moreover, Nigeria was adopted as a reference of analyses due to her population placement in the continent of Africa and one of the key players in international politics.

Keywords: Development, Marxian, Modernization, Statist And Corruption, Underdevelopment

Theoretical Approaches to the Understanding of African Politics and the Challenges of Development (Published)

The paper discusses conceptual and theoretical approaches to African politics such as the Modernization School; Marxian School; and the Statist School of thought vis-à-vis development and underdevelopment paradigm. The paper uncovers critical argument in various schools of thought, the variables that have caused relative development and severe-underdevelopment in African society at present and in the past respectively. Using Nigeria as a point of departure and melting-point, it will critically and objectively identify the problems and challenges of development in Africa and offer suggestions that will move Africa further along the path of development. However, the paper concluded with statist school of thought attributing underdevelopment (poverty, unemployment, communal clashes, the rise of ethnic militia and militancy and so no) due to the problem of corruption and failure of governmental policies implementation in African, in a phrase bad leadership.

Keywords: Development, Marxian, Modernization, Statist And Corruption, Underdevelopment

Terrorism and the Challenge of National Development: Rethinking the Nigerian Dilemma (Review Completed - Accepted)

Terrorism in whatever dimension poses threat and insecurities to human existence in regards to which defenseless nations live in perpetual fears and anxiety. Knowing full well that Security is presently a major challenge in Nigeria and Nigerians are killed on daily basis and in their numbers. Though the government claims to be on top of the situation, the problem persists. The effects of these acts of terrorism are the threats they posed to national security, peace, unity and development of the country. This paper examines Terrorism and the Challenge of National Development, rethinking the Nigerian Dilemma. It provides a basic discourse on the concept of terrorism and national development while focusing on basic issues such on the development perspective. It also analyzes the implications of terrorism which range from economic crises to political instability. This paper observes that there is a negative relationship between terrorism and development in accordance with literature and hence recommends that the government should take the business of addressing issues of terrorism as priority one on the agenda.

Keywords: Dilemma, National Development, National Security, Political Instability, Terrorism, Underdevelopment