Tag Archives: Trends

Climate Change Implications for Agricultural Sustainability in Enugu in the Guinea Savanna Eco-Climatic Zone of Southeastern Nigeria: Input from Climate Change Proxies (Published)

Climate change poses debilitating effects for agriculture and food security in low technology countries such as sub-Saharan Africa. The trends and variations of some climatic variables that influence agriculture were analysed using integrated statistical techniques. The aim is to examine the possible effects of climate change on agricultural sustainability in Enugu, southeastern Nigeria using lessons drawn from trend analysis of historical time series of meteorological variables in monthly time step in the area. The area whose economy is largely agrigarian has continued to witness incidence of poor crop productivity. Significant long-term trends were identified in some of the variables and non-significant trends in others. Inferences were made with considerable support of evidence and high degree of confidence. The climate of the area is changing in a manner that concern for agricultural sustainability is on the front burner of the long-term resulting consequences. The need for pre-season and on-season climate information dissemination system is advocated to provide timely and accurate agro-meteorological information

Keywords: Climate Change, Enugu, Nigeria, Trends, agricultural sustainability, climatic parameters, statistical techniques

Analysis of Poverty Trends in Ghana (Published)

The definition of poverty differs across regions and localities in reference to traditions and what society perceived to be poor characterises of a household. In the past, poverty was defined based on household indices such as income levels, consumption and expenditure patterns among others. However, in our efforts to estimate poverty level of households or communities, one has to take into consideration the multi-dimensional nature of poverty and factors that contribute to poverty including both human and social indices normally drafted into poverty reduction projects and strategies.

Keywords: Ghana, Poverty, Trends

Trends in Caesarean Section at Calabar General Hospital, Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

There are wide global variations in the prevalence of caesarean section in developed, developing and underdeveloped countries. The objective of this this study was to determine the trends in caesarean section at Calabar General Hospital, Cross River State. This paper used a retrospective review of clinical records at the maternity units of Calabar General Hospital from 2009 to 2013. Findings from this study showed that Cesarean section rate ranged from 3.85% in 2009 to 7.38% in 2013 with an average cesarean section rate of 5.39%. Based on available data, elective cesarean section progressed substantially from 17.2% in 2009 and slightly declined to 15.3% in 2010, then increased again from 22.5% in 2011, 29.6% in 2012 to 31.0% in 2013. Emergency cesarean section on the other hand increased progressively from 82.8% in 2009 to 84.7% in 2010 then declined from 77.5% in 2011, 70.4% in 2012 to 69.0% in 2013. In conclusion improvement of obstetric services should be a priority in all health care settings.

Keywords: Calabar General Hospital, Ceasearan section, Pregnant Women, Trends


This research aims to evaluate the effect of the variables; namely, price, service quality, brand image and trends on customer loyalty of service providers of mobile phones in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was developed and distributed to a convenient sample throughout the major cities of Saudi Arabia. A total of 775 were returned representing a response rate of 89.6%. The study showed that the majority of respondents had prescribed to more than one service provider at the same time. Additionally, it was revealed that all the variables tested; price, service quality, brand image and trends, had a direct effect on customer loyalty of service provider. Results obtained from this research will offer necessary feedback for improving a company’s strategy, marketing mix, services, and product offerings, thereby, achieve customer satisfaction and improve their customer loyalty while attracting new ones.

Keywords: Brand Image, Customer loyalty, Price, Saudi Arabia, Service Quality, Trends, mobile phones


This study analyzed trends of Students’ mathematics performance in May/June West African Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (WASSCE) in Nasarawa State, Nigeria from 2004 to 2013. The main objectives were to investigate the pattern of students’ performance for ten (10) years (2004 to 2013) in Nasarawa State, and to infer the implication of the observed and predicted mathematics performance on Nigeria’s vision of 20:2020. The study used secondary data. The WASSCE mathematics results of 302, 225 Students who sat for May/June WASSCE from 2004-2013 were collected from the Education Resource Centre, Ministry of Education Lafia and used for the study. The study mainly employed AutoRegressive (AR) time series analysis. The study revealed that: (i) performance pattern was unstable over time, (ii) the observed and predicted performance rates indicated that less than 50% of the candidates passed at credit level over the reviewed period. The study discovered that mathematics performance in Nasarawa State has been persistently poor over the years reviewed similar to what has been reported for the whole nation and could continue from 2014 to 2020 based on the forecast. It further observed that the Nigeria vision 20:2020 might not be realized as planned unless urgent steps are taken to improve performance in mathematics. This is because mathematics serves critical role in the development of human capital in Science, Technology, Engineering and other key sectors of the economy. Based on the findings, the study recommended among others, that policy makers should review the existing mathematics curriculum and enforce its implementation.

Keywords: Autoregressive, Mathematics, Nigeria Vision 20:2020., Students performance, Trends


The monthly mean maximum and minimum temperature data were analysed with the aim of revealing spatial and temporal pattern of long-term trends in the variables. The study is based on the data collected from Nigeria Meteorological Agency’s network of meteorological stations spread across Nigeria spanning from 1950-2012. A total of 20 meteorological stations spread across Nigeria were used for the analysis. Statistical techniques such as time-series plots, correlation analysis, descriptive statistics and Mann-Kendall’s test were used for the analysis. These analyses were executed using the R programming language, MATLAB and SPSS computer software packages. The results show latitudinal dependence of basic temperature characteristics with the northern part of the country exhibiting higher temperature variability than the south. The Mann-Kendall tests indicate that 17 stations (representing 85%) show significant increasing trends in the minimum temperature at the 0.01 level of significance while 16 stations (representing 80%) show significant increasing trends in the maximum temperature at the 0.01 and 0.05 significance levels. Port Harcourt and Ikeja have greatest trend coefficients among the 20 stations. The minimum temperatures have higher trend coefficients than the maximum temperatures for almost all the stations. The interstation spatial coherence revealed by correlation coefficients indicates that almost all the station’s minimum and maximum temperatures are positively correlated with others at the 0.01 level of significance. The Mann-Kendall’s test results show a general warming trend across the stations.

Keywords: Mann-Kendall, Nigeria, Trends, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, variability