Tag Archives: Treatment.

Effects of Postharvest Treatments on the Storage Quality of Mango (Mangifera indica L) (Published)

A study was conducted in the postharvest laboratory of the Federal College of Horticulture Dadinkowa, Gombe State, Nigeria, to investigate the effects of some postharvest treatments, namely; hot water treatment, gibberellic acid, ground nut oil, extracts of garlic, extracts of neem leaves, mixture of extracts of neem leaves and garlic and distilled water (control) on the storage quality of mango fruits. The experiment was laid out in a complete randomized design (CRD) replicated three times. The results indicated that all the treatments reduced weight loss, fruit diameter, fruit decay and loss in firmness. However, gibberellic acid was found to be most effective in minimizing fruit weight loss and fruit diameter when compared with other treatments. In terms of fruit decay and fruit firmness however, mixture of extracts of neem leaves and garlic (500 ml each) performed better than all other treatments throughout the storage period of 15 days. Hence, it can be concluded that application of gibberellic acid and extracts of neem leaves and garlic enhances the shelf life of mango fruits, and can maintain good fruit quality under ambient condition for up to 15 days.

Keywords: Extracts, Mango, Postharvest, Treatment., fruits

Heavy Metal Concentration in Selected River Tributaries in an Urban Settlement in Akure, Nigeria (Published)

Heavy metals can impact human health and continuous exposure to heavy metals in water can lead to a variety of health issues. Water from surface water bodies such as streams and rivers help to alleviate the problem of water scarcity especially in developing countries. In this study, the heavy metal content of stream water samples was analyzed. Four (4) heavy metals namely Iron (Fe), Chromium (Cr), Cadmium (Cd) and Manganese (Mn) were analyzed in the laboratory and the results obtained were compared with World Health Organization (WHO) standard for potable water. The results revealed that none of the water samples analyzed met WHO standard for Cr in potable water while only 40% of the water samples analyzed conformed to WHO standard for Cd in potable water. Findings of this study revealed that Cr and Cd are heavy metals of concern in the study area. Periodic evaluation of the heavy metal content of surface water in the study area is necessary in order to monitor deterioration in the quality of the water and also to recommend adequate treatment for the water before human consumption.

Citation: Ochuko Mary Ojo (2022) Heavy Metal Concentration in Selected River Tributaries in an Urban Settlement in Akure, Nigeria, British Journal of Environmental Sciences, Vol.10, No.1, pp. 25-31



Keywords: Heavy Metals, Human Health, Treatment., rivers

Discrimination, Exploitation, Abuse and Neglect [DEAN] of Persons with Disabilities in Nigeria (Published)

Disability is a global concern, predisposes the sufferers to several challenges including discrimination, exploitation, abuse and neglect both at home and in the street. The conditions of being disabled could arise from birth or during one’s lifetime and the sufferers find themselves incapacitated either mentally or physically which then limits their chances of accessing various opportunities in society. The paper argued that persons with disabilities [PWDs] are poorly treated by family members through physical and sexual abuse, exploitation of inheritance, rights infringement and or resources gathered from alms begging where used for such. The exploitation and abuse were made possible due to the heavy reliance of the PWDs on the family members to carry out certain tasks and for being perceived as a burden to the family. Also, the paper argued that PWDs are faced with a lot of discrimination in schools by their peers and tutors and are often neglected in terms provision of assistive devices, materials and adequate training for tutors to successfully transfer knowledge to them.  The paper concluded that the treatment of the PWDs was poor, unfair and unjust and requires government intervention, NGOs and individuals’ positive attitudinal change to alleviate their suffering experiences.


Keywords: Abuse, Discrimination, Exploitation, Persons With Disabilities, Treatment., neglect

Literature Review on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (Published)

A comprehensive literature review on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is discussed in the present article. CBT has been one of the most appropriate treatment methods for people with anxiety and depression and is an effective treatment for depressive disorder in adults of all ages and is associated with continuous improvement over time. Key findings on the archival research pointed about Cognitive Behavioral Therapy as one of the most systematically researched and updated psychosocial treatments for depression in adulthood under investigation. Discussion and recommendations for future research compile the present work.

Keywords: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Depression, Treatment., adulthood

Hydrocarbon Soil Treatment Test with Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) (Published)

The depollution test was carried out through the surfactant washing process. The effects of variation in SDS concentration (0.5-1 g/L), contact time (10-60 min) and soil particle size (<50 μm – <250 μm) were studied on the efficiency of depollution through a complete factorial plan. Quantitative analyzes performed on the different fractions of a soil sample showed that the fine fraction (<50μm) is the most polluted. In fact, the contents of n-alkanes in soil particles of sizes <50 μm range from 4.79 to 65.90 μg/g of sample MS and in sizes of <250 μm, from 0.91 to 30 μm, 70 μg/g of MS. PAH contents in fractions <50μm range from 3.46 to 103.5 μg/g of sample MS and in fractions <250 μm, from 2.90 μg/g to 21.85 μg/g of MS. These hydrocarbon levels obtained are much higher than the guide values ​​defined by the French Environment and Energy Management Agency. The application of this washing process has made it possible to achieve overall hydrocarbon abatement rates of up to 97.3%. As a result, the optimum for the minimum content of residual hydrocarbons (≈10 μg/g DM) is obtained at a concentration of 0.75 g/L, a contact time of 60 min and a particle size of soil < 50 μm. This process, which makes it possible to obtain an interesting yield of extraction of pollutants, could thus be used for the remediation of soils and sediments polluted by hydrocarbons in general and PAHs in particular.

Keywords: SDS, Soil, Test, Treatment., hydrocarbons

Mathematical Assessment of the Transmission Dynamics of HIV/AIDS with Treatment Effects (Published)

This article examines the transmission dynamics of HIV/AIDS with treatment effects. The total population ( ) was grouped into four compartments namely susceptible individuals at time t   ( ), infected humans at time t ( ), individuals on treatment at time t ( ), and the AIDS carriers at time t  ). A first order deterministic mathematical model for the case is formulated and analyzed to gain insight into the qualitative features of the local stability and disease free equilibrium which enable us to understand the  transmission dynamics of the disease. The numerical simulation of the model was carried out to investigate the sensitivity of some threshold parameters on spread rate of the disease. We also investigated  the impact of early detection of HIV cases and compliant behavior of patients on treatment. Our  results from numerical simulation and early detection of HIV case/ compliant behavior of patients on treatment show that early detection of HIV case and compliant behavior of patients on treatment reduce spread of the disease and minimize rate at which people develop AIDS.

Keywords: HIV/AIDS, Modeling, Transmission dynamics, Treatment., mathematical assessment

Using Dissemination of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria (ARB) and Resistance Genes (ARG) for Wastewater Treatment (Published)

This investigation was directed to assess the impact of wastewater treatment forms on the pervasiveness of anti-infection obstruction fecal coliform (FC) and anti-toxin opposition qualities (ARGs) of FC. What’s more, the event of anti-infection safe microscopic organisms (ARB) and anti-toxin safe qualities (ARGs) in surface waters accepting wastewater was assessed. More noteworthy opposition against penicillin (P), colistin (CT) and ampicillin (AMP) were watched for FC disconnected from profluent purified by chlorine (71%), than that cleaned by UV (45%). The best opposition against six anti-infection agents was recorded for FC secludes from emanating purified by chlorine. The pervasiveness of test and blaSHV was most reduced in disconnects from chlorine-purified effluents. The event of ARG blaSHV was most astounding in FC disconnected from emanating sterilized by UV. A critical relationship was recorded between FC levels in surface waters and the degree of bacterial protection from ampicillin (P < 0.05) and to chloramphenicol (P < 0.05). AmpC and blaPSE1 were more pervasive than blaSHV in effluents and in surface waters. TetA and tests were profoundly pervasive in surface water contrasted with test. The consequences of the examination exhibit across the board pervasiveness of ARB and ARG in wastewater and accepting water bodies. The outcome shows that the wellspring of ARB and ARG in surface waters start from wastewater. Discharged ARB and ARG may fill in as the wellspring of ARG to pathogenic microscopic organisms in surface waters. Sanitization procedures may impact the choice of anti-infection safe examples of microorganisms.

Keywords: Antibiotic resistant bacteria, Disinfection, Genes, Treatment., wastewater

Local Stability Analysis of Neisseria Gonorrhea Disease Model in West Africa (Published)

Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted infection caused by bacterium Neisseria gonorrhea. Today, this life threatening infectious disease is a great challenge to the society.In this article, we developed treatment epidemic model for Nesseria gonorrhea disease in order to gain insight into the transmission dynamics and understand epidemic situation and suggest control measures. We analyzed Local stability of the model and the basic reproduction number  using next generation matrix method. The disease free equilibrium was determined to be locally asymptotically stable for  and unstable for .

Keywords: Neisseria ghonorrhea, Treatment., basic reproduction., endemic equilibrium, local stability, vaccination

Modelling Energy Recovery from Wastewater Treatment by Anaerobic Digestion (Published)

In this study, attempt was made to model gas production process from an anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge in a treatment plant. Apart from the issue of environmental cleanup this process of sewage treatment offers, it has become a viable tool to solving energy problems that exist in many parts of the world. Nigeria has much wastewater and this constitutes environmental pollution when channelled to the freshwaters body. Some wastewater; domestic and industrial, has to be treated before channelling them into waterways and in doing this, biogas can be tapped from the system if anaerobic digesters are designed and incorporated into the treatment plants. In this study, this process of biogas production was modelled to ascertain the amount of energy that can be recovered from wastewater treatment plant, for economic usage in the operation of the treatment plant and municipal consumption. To achieve this objective, equation  was derived and its application yielded a positive result. Results from two different experimental reactors, reactors 1 and 2 (see Table 4.2 above) were used in comparison with the model reactors to investigate performance of the model. Figure 4.1 shows the gas yield for the different reactors investigated. Statistical analysis of the overall results shows that model reactor 1 has a coefficient of correlation (CORR) of 0.95, this demonstrate a good fit with the experimental results obtained from reactor 1. However, a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and root mean square error (RMSE) of 2.15 and 7.49 respectively, was recorded during this process. These values indicate a significantly low error of estimates and shows that the model is reliable.Similarly, model reactor 2 gave a CORR of 0.96 with errors of estimate (MAPE) of 1.34 and RMSE OF 3.12. Meanwhile, it can be observed that both experimental reactor 1 and 2 have a slightly higher values of gas yield than their corresponding model reactors. This trend is rather good in relation to safety in gas production estimate using the model. An overestimating model would be misleading and give a false data when such is needed for energy generation design and operation. . The biogas yield obtained  were used to power a micro gas turbine in order to determine electrical energy output from the system, a process that have now been commercialized for economic benefits. Equation 3.24 was derived and its consequent solution, equation 3.27 was used for that purpose. Figure 4.6 shows the energy output for experimental reactor 1. The result obtained shows a close fit between the turbine output and the model output. Precisely, a CORR value of 0.96 was obtained with a small error of estimate of 2.34 and 8.00 respectively for MAPE and RMSE. Similarly, figure 4.7 shows energy output for experimental reactor 2. In this, the coefficient of correlation was found to be 0.94 with MAPE and RMSE being 2.15 and 3.55 respectively. Figure 4.8 and 4.9 shows the energy output for model reactors 1 and 2 respectively. The CORR, MAPE and RMSE were 0.95, 3.78 and 5.51 respectively for model reactor 1 while a similar value of 0.97, 1.73 and 5.02 were recorded for model reactor 2 respectively. In all, a very good correlation values was obtained to show that energy generation from treatment plant can be modelled given the biogas yield data. It should be noted that turbine plant operational mechanism may vary slightly depending on their capacities; consequently, an updated recalibration of the model would be necessary.

Keywords: Anaerobic reactor, Digestion, Energy, Sewage, Treatment.

Molecular Characterization of Hepatitis C Virus Strain Circulated In Chronically Infected Patients in Abidjan (Cote-D’ivoire) (Published)

Viral hepatitis C (HCV) is a public health problem. The therapeutic management and in particular the duration of treatment depends on the viral genotype. HCV is poorly documented in the population and there are few data on the different genotypes and subtypes of HCV circulating in Côte d’Ivoire. In this context, the main objective of this study was to study the genetic variability of the HCV virus in infected patients in Abidjan. We conducted a cross-sectional study at CIRBA from June 2015 to June 2017 which included adult patients with a Viral Load > 1000 IU/mL. HCV genotyping was performed by amplification of the NS5B region followed by sequencing with an ABI 3130 sequencer (Applied Biosystems, Courtaboeuf, France). Phylogenetic trees were produced using MEGA 7 software and genotypes were confirmed using online software (http://hcv.geno2pheno.org). In this study 94 subjects were included. The genotypes encountered were genotypes 1, 2 and 4 with a prevalence of 46%, 52% and 2% respectively. These strains were divided into 17 subtypes genotype 1 : 6 subtypes 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d, 1i, 1k, genotype 2 : 9 subtypes 2a, 2b, 2c, 2c/k, 2f, 2j, 2k, 2l, 2r and 2 subtypes 4f and 4r for genotype 4. The study allowed the implementation of a genotyping technique and monitoring showed that genotypes 1 and 2 are predominant in Côte d’Ivoire. The circulation of genotype 4 is noted.

Keywords: HCV, Sequencing, Treatment., genotype.

Investigation of Anaerobic Processes in Septic Tank as a Wastewater Treatment Option (Published)

This study aims to find out the anaerobic processes in septic tank as a wastewater treatment plant. Samples were collected from both a septic tank and soakaway pit. Thus, after the collection of samples from the location, waste water analysis was conducted on the two water samples A and B respectively. The results obtained on the water samples showed that sample A under physical analysis using thermometer, pH meter, conductivity meter etc, has a higher physical characteristics value according to table 4.1, than that of sample B. more also from the chemical analysis seen in table 4.1 sample A has a higher BOD, COD and DO values more than that of sample B. Therefore this suggests that biological treatment processes was efficient in that septic tank and as such waste water discharged to the environment, will be harmless to the inhabitants in that environment.

Keywords: Anaerobic, Septic Tank, Sewage, Treatment.

Dummy Variable Multiple Regression Analysis of Matched Samples (Published)

Presented and discussed in this paper is the use of dummy variable multiple regression techniques in the analysis of samples drawn from several related or dependent populations ordinarily appropriate for random effects and mixed effects two factor analysis of variances model with one observation per-cell or treatment combinations. Using the extra sum of squares principle the method develops necessary sums of squares, degrees of freedom and the F-ratios required test to the significance of factor level effects thereby helping resolve the problem of one observation per treatment combination, encountered in the usual two factor analysis of variance models with one observation per cell. The method provides estimates of the overall and factor mean effects comparable to those obtained with the two factor analysis of variance methods. In addition, the method also provides estimates of the total or absolute effects as well as the direct and indirect effects of the independent variables or factors on the dependent or criterion variable which are not ordinarily obtainable with the usual analysis of variance techniques. The proposed method is illustrated with some sample data and shown to compare favourably with the usual Friedman’s two-way analysis of variance test by ranks often used for the same purpose.

Keywords: Dummy Variable, Extra Sum of Square, Friedman’s Two-Way ANOVA, Mixed–Effects ANOVA, Regression, Treatment.

The Treatment of Cultural Content in an Integrated English Course 1 for Chinese College English Majors (Published)

This paper presents a cultural analysis of the textbook “An Integrated English Course 1” that is widely used by college English majors in China. Based on the previous studies on culture teaching and materials evaluation, the paper has examined the textbook and found out that it is aimed at introducing western cultures, especially American culture to Chinese students. Although the textbook has a strong orientation towards American culture in the selecting of texts, it takes an intercultural point of view in the designing of some activities and exercises. The paper emphasizes the intercultural approach to textbook writing and EFL teaching.

Keywords: Culture, Intercultural View, Language Course, Textbook, Treatment.

Nature of Language, Speech and Communication Disorders (Review Completed - Accepted)

Speech, language and communication disorders are most common form of disorder among children in the world. The speech and language disorders are classified as expressive language disorder, phonological disorder, and communication disorder not-otherwise-specified (DSM-IV), mixed receptive-expressive language disorder and stuttering. Each category of speech and language impairment is prevalent among children from 5-15%. These disorders are mainly heritable and thus their genetic factor plays an important role in influencing these disorders. Genetic basis behind this defect is studied thoroughly in this review. Literature findings have showed that the main genes responsible for speech and language disorders are FOXP1 and FOXP2 genes which are identified through genome study linkages and genomic screening. Further research is required to UN reveal the biological pathways behind this deficit and to improve the treatment methods. Though various genetic factors play a vital role, other environmental factors also influences the speech and language disorders. The environmental factors must be considered importantly during childhood who already has genetic risk disorder. The important environmental influences related to children’s success or failures in reading are mainly educational experiences and home environment. Children’s literacy is mainly gained through the effect of home environment and through their oral language skills and reading comprehension ability when compared to accurate reading. Children who have such disorders must receive assistance from the speech-language pathologist. Speech-language pathologists work with children, families and schools to assist a child’s communication. This therapy can be useful to children all through their educational trajectory for the understanding of language, vocabulary and reading which is more complex. Their transition must be from learning to employment along with the children.

Keywords: Environmental Factors, Genetic factors, Speech and language impairment, Treatment.