The study investigated the level of trauma experienced by Nigeria children and adolescents. It also examined the challenges being faced by the teaming population of youths that have been traumatized. The study identified the various traumatic situations prevailing in Nigeria. Also, it examined the availability and responsiveness of these youths to available Counselling and adequacy of Counselling. The traumatic experience of youths seems to be accountable for most of the insurgency, terrorism and restiveness pervading entire Nigeria. This is because there are occurrences such as kidnapping examination malpractices child trafficking bomb explosion, political offences, economic fraud, religious crisis, ritual killings, abduction drunkenness, armed robbery and so on. All these seem to have defiled all weapons of sanitation in Nigeria. Descriptive research design of the survey type was used for the study after consulting the entire Nigeria population. Based on the above discovery Nigeria government should consult the genealogy of harmful traumatic occurrences affecting the youths in Nigeria to be able to nip it in the bud. Curriculum planners should identify incorporate trauma provoking situations into the school curriculum to be taught. Counsellors and care givers should be trained on how to reduce and counsel traumatized youths. Trauma centres to provide hospice services should be established by State and Federal Government. The study could be of benefit to school children parents teachers examination bodies counsellors, curriculum planners, religious leaders, school administrators and law enforcement agents. They would learn, teach, counsel and ameliorate traumatic and trauma provoking situations.
Kamila Shamsie, a Pakistani English fiction writer in her epic novel, Burnt Shadows (2009), covers more than half a century, from fatal day of atomic bombing on 9th August 1945 at Nagasaki in World War II to the 9/11/ 2001 attack on World Trade Centre and the post-9/11 world. This study explores the traumatic displacement of innocent humans because of the major historical events caused by the world power politics. A Series of traumatic displacement is presented through the stories of two families which consist of individuals of various nationalities and a number of cross-cultural relationships. Norman Fairclough’s (1995) interpretative framework of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) has been used to uncover the traumatic impacts of the misuse of power which according to Van Dijk(1990) is the most prominent theme of CDA. Postcolonial context of the writer and the text and inherent ideology and power relations embedded in the text have been explored. The outcome of this academic discussion provides a tapestry of emotional, psychological and social challenges caused by traumatic displacement and the enormity of damage it causes in the life of the poor victims.
Social Support in Promoting Resilience among the Internally Displaced Persons after Trauma: A Case of Kiambaa Village in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya (Published)
Trauma after adversity affects an individual’s life, families and the entire community. Traumatized individuals experience hardship and distress. In conflict situations, people go through moments of turmoil and severe loss of loved ones and property. Social support is an important factor that can contribute to resilience after trauma. The importance of family, friends and community in contributing to resilience has been emphasized over time; today it still remains a key factor in building resilience. This study looked into the importance and effectiveness of social support in promoting resilience after trauma among Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) in Kenya. The study focused on survivors from Kiambaa fire incident after the 2007 general Elections. The study adopted a mixed method design approach. The target population for this study comprised individuals who were victims of the fire tragedy at Kiambaa village. Respondents for this study were selected using purposive and snow ball sampling techniques. Questionnaire and unstructured interview schedule were the main tools of data collection. The study established that social support is a key element in building resilience in traumatized individuals. The results of a Pearson correlation analysis confirmed a strong positive correlation between social support and resilience of individuals (r=0.835, p<0.05). The study recommended that there is need for professionals working with traumatized individuals to be more familiar with social support and other factors that contribute to resilience. More emphasis should be put in incorporating awareness of these factors in the training of professionals working with traumatized individuals.
Sexual, Textual and Traumatic subjectivity: August Strindberg representation of class and sexual conflict in Miss Julie (Review Completed - Accepted)
This paper aims at understanding the importance of sexuality and the ways in which sexuality is accorded central status in an attempt to understand human relations, pleasure and satisfaction, sexual subject in culture, to reveal varying degrees of trepidation and anxiety about the ambiguities of sexuality i.e androgyny represents the resolution of the anxieties and tensions of sexual difference in favor of complementarity. In terms of class and gender this paper explores the patriarchal and misogynistic frameworks in which gender and sex were constructed in late 19th century and early 20th century; and how class and power mean mean that, that sexual never signifies in social isolation i.e power comes into play in the machinery of production, in families, limited groups and institutions. In terms of traumatic theory, this paper will see at how sexual trauma takes form of a psychological and ontological angst after reaching sexual maturity.