The great Indian epic, The Mahabharata inspires us to navigate through the height of joy on winning a battle or a kingdom and the depth of sorrow over loss of life, property and so on. The characters witness the prognosis of their distressing and disturbing lives having immense psychological ramifications. In this research, The Mahabharata will be discussed in the light of various trauma features expounded by Vickroy (2002), Skultans (2007), Arizti (2011) and Baelo-Allue (2012) to examine if the epic, being “a treatise on Artha, on Dharma, and on Kama” (Ganguli, 2006, p. 31), can fit into the scheme of trauma narrative. An in-depth analysis of the epic finds that its narrative accommodates most of the theme-based and technique-based trauma narrative features. Besides, the epic embodies trauma as one of its primary themes. Further, the narrative techniques, such as, hamartia, peripetia, tone, repetitive designation, amplification, flashforward and the use of long expressions, embedded in the narrative of the epic, but are not considered in trauma theories, are found representing the psychological trauma of the characters of the epic effectively, thus contribute to broaden the scope of trauma theories by adding new features.
Citation: Dharmapada Jena (2022) Negotiating The Mahabharata as a Trauma Narrative, European Journal of English Language and Literature Studies, Vol.10, No.3, pp.33-49
The Complexities of Alienation, Otherness, and Marginalization in Miral Al-Tahawy’s Novel Brooklyn Heights (Published)
This paper is an attempt to bind the reader to the complexities of otherness and marginalization as trauma experienced by the protagonist and other immigrants in the America depicted in Brooklyn Heights[i]. In all of their complexities and nuances that this paper seeks to explore and discuss these concepts, otherness, alienation, and marginalization, in light of Homi Bhahba’s concept of otherness and Daphne Grace’s theorization on the geographical senses of ‘belonging’ or ‘dislocation’. As such, since Al-Tahawy’s narrative focuses on spaces of otherness and marginalization, this paper aims to reveal how the novelist tends towards the deeply personal, and creates interesting transnational connections through a wide cast of multi-racial immigrants and refugees. The paper further exposes how Al-Tahawy, through her compelling and masterful style, captures the confusions and conflicts of marginalized immigrants and how otherness and marginalization, as experiences of social and psychological disjunction, lead to cultural alienation in America; how attempts at assimilation in a new host country even further highlight the sense of loss and alienation, especially if the immigration from the original home country takes as a result of a traumatic event; and whether or not assimilation necessarily nullifies one’s ethnicity or means total disappearance or “dissolving” into the mainstream.
Citation: Farouq Rezq Bekhit Sayyid (2022) The Complexities of Alienation, Otherness, and Marginalization in Miral Al-Tahawy’s Novel Brooklyn Heights, European Journal of English Language and Literature Studies, Vol.10, No.3, pp.1-15
After Jesus, Hamlet is the most cited figure in western consciousness” : Philosophical Readings in Shakespeare’s Hamlet (Published)
Shakespeare’s Hamlet is regarded as one of the greatest mysteries of world literature to be unfolded ever since it was first written. For centuries, Hamlet the play and Hamlet the character have bewildered readers and critics alike. The play is embedded with meanings and laden in philosophical thoughts and interrogations producing an endless width of readings and controversies throughout different ages and generations. However deeply rooted in time, Hamlet has always meant something for everyone ever since it was released. The play has transcended its spatial and temporal framework to embrace the universal, making it a good reference and landmark to return to according to the needs of the time. Hamlet breaks the thematic stereotyping cycle of the time during which it was penned in ways that provide meaningful discursive interpretations re-contextualized to resonate with contemporary audience and modern readers. This paper reinterprets the tragedy of Hamlet whose inner dilemma becomes that of the Modern Man worldwide. Shakespeare’s play, Hamlet, is a call to hold a mirror to our most profound conflicts and anxieties, to the bulk of our darkest torments. Any discussion of the play should acknowledge the weight of its philosophical dimensions on which hinge the works of great existentialist philosophers like Sartre, Heidegger, and Kierkegaard (among others), which this paper will try to elucidate. A central concern in this paper is the disconcerting issue of Hamlet’s “nothingness” which becomes, in the long run, our own. Peering into the abyss of Hamlet’s psyche allows for a self-reflection, an outcry for the modern self to survive along with the fight with our consciousness to stabilize it.
The study investigated the level of trauma experienced by Nigeria children and adolescents. It also examined the challenges being faced by the teaming population of youths that have been traumatized. The study identified the various traumatic situations prevailing in Nigeria. Also, it examined the availability and responsiveness of these youths to available Counselling and adequacy of Counselling. The traumatic experience of youths seems to be accountable for most of the insurgency, terrorism and restiveness pervading entire Nigeria. This is because there are occurrences such as kidnapping examination malpractices child trafficking bomb explosion, political offences, economic fraud, religious crisis, ritual killings, abduction drunkenness, armed robbery and so on. All these seem to have defiled all weapons of sanitation in Nigeria. Descriptive research design of the survey type was used for the study after consulting the entire Nigeria population. Based on the above discovery Nigeria government should consult the genealogy of harmful traumatic occurrences affecting the youths in Nigeria to be able to nip it in the bud. Curriculum planners should identify incorporate trauma provoking situations into the school curriculum to be taught. Counsellors and care givers should be trained on how to reduce and counsel traumatized youths. Trauma centres to provide hospice services should be established by State and Federal Government. The study could be of benefit to school children parents teachers examination bodies counsellors, curriculum planners, religious leaders, school administrators and law enforcement agents. They would learn, teach, counsel and ameliorate traumatic and trauma provoking situations.
Kamila Shamsie, a Pakistani English fiction writer in her epic novel, Burnt Shadows (2009), covers more than half a century, from fatal day of atomic bombing on 9th August 1945 at Nagasaki in World War II to the 9/11/ 2001 attack on World Trade Centre and the post-9/11 world. This study explores the traumatic displacement of innocent humans because of the major historical events caused by the world power politics. A Series of traumatic displacement is presented through the stories of two families which consist of individuals of various nationalities and a number of cross-cultural relationships. Norman Fairclough’s (1995) interpretative framework of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) has been used to uncover the traumatic impacts of the misuse of power which according to Van Dijk(1990) is the most prominent theme of CDA. Postcolonial context of the writer and the text and inherent ideology and power relations embedded in the text have been explored. The outcome of this academic discussion provides a tapestry of emotional, psychological and social challenges caused by traumatic displacement and the enormity of damage it causes in the life of the poor victims.
Social Support in Promoting Resilience among the Internally Displaced Persons after Trauma: A Case of Kiambaa Village in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya (Published)
Trauma after adversity affects an individual’s life, families and the entire community. Traumatized individuals experience hardship and distress. In conflict situations, people go through moments of turmoil and severe loss of loved ones and property. Social support is an important factor that can contribute to resilience after trauma. The importance of family, friends and community in contributing to resilience has been emphasized over time; today it still remains a key factor in building resilience. This study looked into the importance and effectiveness of social support in promoting resilience after trauma among Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) in Kenya. The study focused on survivors from Kiambaa fire incident after the 2007 general Elections. The study adopted a mixed method design approach. The target population for this study comprised individuals who were victims of the fire tragedy at Kiambaa village. Respondents for this study were selected using purposive and snow ball sampling techniques. Questionnaire and unstructured interview schedule were the main tools of data collection. The study established that social support is a key element in building resilience in traumatized individuals. The results of a Pearson correlation analysis confirmed a strong positive correlation between social support and resilience of individuals (r=0.835, p<0.05). The study recommended that there is need for professionals working with traumatized individuals to be more familiar with social support and other factors that contribute to resilience. More emphasis should be put in incorporating awareness of these factors in the training of professionals working with traumatized individuals.
Sexual, Textual and Traumatic subjectivity: August Strindberg representation of class and sexual conflict in Miss Julie (Review Completed - Accepted)
This paper aims at understanding the importance of sexuality and the ways in which sexuality is accorded central status in an attempt to understand human relations, pleasure and satisfaction, sexual subject in culture, to reveal varying degrees of trepidation and anxiety about the ambiguities of sexuality i.e androgyny represents the resolution of the anxieties and tensions of sexual difference in favor of complementarity. In terms of class and gender this paper explores the patriarchal and misogynistic frameworks in which gender and sex were constructed in late 19th century and early 20th century; and how class and power mean mean that, that sexual never signifies in social isolation i.e power comes into play in the machinery of production, in families, limited groups and institutions. In terms of traumatic theory, this paper will see at how sexual trauma takes form of a psychological and ontological angst after reaching sexual maturity.